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Unit Nine

Allies The group of nations—originally consisting of Great Britain, France, and Russia and later joined by the United States, Italy, and others—that opposed the Central Powers
Central Powers The group of nations—led by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire—that opposed the Allies in World War I
U-Boats German submarines
Lusitania A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915
Zimmermann Note A message sent in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered World War I
Selective Service Act A law, enacted in 1917, that required men to register for military service
Rationing A restriction of people’s right to buy unlimited amounts of particular foods and other goods, often implemented during wartime to ensure adequate supplies for the military
War Industries Board An agency established during World War I to increase efficiency and discourage waste in war-related industries
American Expeditionary Force The U.S. forces, led by General John Pershing, who fought with the Allies in Europe during World War I.
Fourteen Points The principles making up President Woodrow Wilson’s plan for world peace following World War I
No Man's Land An unoccupied region between opposing armies
Convoy System The protection of merchant ships from U-boat—German submarine—attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships
Conscientious Objector A person who refuses, on moral grounds, to participate in warfare
Reparations The compensation paid by a defeated nation for the damage or injury it inflicted during a war
Nationalism A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation
Militarism The policy of building up armed forces in aggressive preparedness for war and their use as a tool of diplomacy
Triple Alliance A union or association between three powers or states, in particular that made in 1668 between England, the Netherlands, and Sweden against France, and that in 1882 between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy against France and Russia
Triple Entente The military alliance formed between Russia, Great Britain and France before World War I
Archduke Ferdinand Archduke of Austria and heir apparent to Francis Joseph I --- his assassination at Sarajevo triggered the outbreak of World War I
Sussex Pledge A promise made by Germany to the United States in 1916, during World War I before the latter entered the war
Propaganda A kind of biased communication designed to influence people’s thoughts and actions
Sedition Act An act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses
Espionage Act A United States federal law passed on June 15, 1917, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War I --- makes it illegal to write or speak anything critical of American involvement in the war
Russian Revolution Revolution in Russia in 1917–1918, also called the October Revolution, that overthrew the czar and brought the Bolsheviks, a Communist party led by Lenin, to power
The League of Nations An association of nations established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace
The Treaty of Versailles The 1919 peace treaty at the end of World War I which established new nations, borders, and war reparations
The Great Migration The large-scale movement of African Americans from the South to Northern cities in the early 20th century
Genocide The deliberate and systematic extermination of a particular racial, national, or religious group
Weimar Republic The democratic government founded in Germany following Kaiser Wilhelm II's abdication near the end of War World I
Mandates The authority to act that an elected official receives from the voters who elected him or her
War-Guilt Clause A provision in the Treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for World War I.
Created by: sarah23me1