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TExES History

Native Americans and Exploration

TermDefinition
First Native Americans Aztecs, Mayas, Incas
How/why did the First Native Americans come to the new land? They came through the Bering Strait-a body of water which froze over. They came following their hunt-the wooly mammoth, the sabertooth tiger,etc.
Where were the Aztecs located? The Aztecs settled in Central Mexico; conquered by Hernan Cortes
Where were the Mayas located? The Mayas were settled in the tip of Mexico (the Yucatan Peninsula) and Central America.
Where the Incas located? The Incas were settled in the Western part of South America in Ecuador and Northern Chile; conquered by Fernando Pizarro
What did the first Native Americans contribute? Aztecs-the calendar (math), farming methods, construction-building the pyramids; Mayas-numbers 0 and 1; writing symbols, irrigation system, governing system, pyramids; Incas-pyramids, civilizations, astronomy-study of the solar system; religion
What happened to the first Native Americans? Spaniards-Hernan Cortes came and conquered them; many died from illnesses brought by the Spaniards; Cortes took their gold, silver, minerals, and their land.
Native Americans of the United States regions... Northwest, Southwest, Plains, Northeast, and Southeast
Northwest Native Americans... fishermen, hunters, farmers; built longhouses; made Totem Poles to tell their family history and canoes; found along West Canada, Washington, Oregon, Northern California
Southwest Native Americans... gatherers, farmers,; built pueblo homes/looked like apartment; made pottery, basket weavers, made Kachina dolls to exemplify their leaders; found in Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, West Texas
Plains Native Americans... hunted the buffalo, farmers; lived in teepees to move around/they were nomads; made elaborate headdresses, bows/arrows, travois; found in Central United States along the way to the Texas Panhandle
Northeast and Southeast Native Americans... fishermen, farmers, hunters for furs; built longhouses; made beaded belts that told a story, slash and burn method to make canoes; found along the east coast of the United States
How many and how long ago were the Native Americans in the United States? about 10 million Native Americans lived in the United States about 11 million years ago
Who were the super powers during the Exploration period? Spain, England/Britain, and France
What did Spain claim? Spain claimed what is now Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Mexico, Central and South America
What did England/Britain claim? colonies in the Caribbean, and 13 colonies along the east coast of America
What did France claim? Canada, land around the Great Lakes, land along the Mississippi River
Reasons for Europe Exploration... Trade, to Map the new land, Treasure, to Christianize the Native Americans, and to claim Land
Christopher Columbus 1492, 1493, 1498-explored for Spain; landed in S. America, the Bahamas; opened up cultural exchange/trade
Alonso Alvarez De Pineda 1519-explored for Spain; explored Texas, the Gulf Coast-Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas and Mexico
Alvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca 1527-explored for Spain; was stranded in Florida, shipwrecked on Louisiana coast; went to Texas; was captured by the Caddo Indians; first to write about the cities of gold-Cibola
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado and Hernando de Soto 1540-1542-explored for Spain; looking for the cities of gold-Cibola; traveled to the Texas Panhandle; first one to see Palo Duro Canyon; went home empty handed
Sieur de La Salle 1682-1685-explored for France; claimed land in Canada and both sides of the Mississippi River; started settlements along the south of Louisiana by the Gulf Coast and Galveston area of Texas
John Smith 1607-explored for England; first permanent English colony named Jamestown; over half the settlers died the first 6 months; Pocahontas saved his life when her father wanted to have him killed
Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts 1620-explored for England; pilgrims came on the Mayflower;
Roger Williams Englishman who established Rhode Island for religious freedom
William Penn Englishman who established Pennsylvania for Quakers who opposed violence, slavery, and war; very peaceful people
William Bradford 1621-2nd governor of Plymouth Colony; ordered the First Thanksgiving with the Wampanoag Indians
Pocahontas Daughter of Chief of the Powhatan Indians; convinced her father to spare John Smith's life; went to live in England with her husband-John Rolfe
John Rolfe Englishman married Pocahontas; member of Jamestown; started the tobacco industry; took his wife-Pocahontas back to England
Squanto Pawtuxet Indian who taught the Pilgrims at Plymouth how to hunt, fish and grow crops.
The Mayflower Compact an agreement written on the Mayflower to establish the governing laws of the new colonies
Missions, Presidiosm(forts), and Early Towns Spanish built these in the 1740s to protect their claims in Texas
Created by: cebarr
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