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Gender Linguists

Studies of gender and language

Sapir & Whorf Came up with the idea that the English language determines perceptions of the world and that people who speak different languages may think differently
Spender Thought it would be credible to assume that males have encoded sexism into the English language to consolidate their claims of male supremacy.
Poole Believed that men have ‘pride of place’
Kirkby Believed that men were more comprehensive than women
Hoey Used the expression ‘lexical priming’ to describe the way in which words and phrases come with an undercoat layer, built from habitual usage in the same context
Sinclair Believed that other linguists should analyse ‘the company that words keep’
Lackoff Researched and came up with ten features of women’s language
O'Barr & Atkins Found that the speaker’s social status determined how many features of ‘female language’ they would use
Fishman Proposed that tag questions were used by women to keep conversations going
Zimmerman & West Analysed overlaps and interruptions in mixed sex and same sex conversations, concluding that women spoke less than men in mixed sex conversations as there were more male interruptions
Cheshire Recorded a clear pattern of the distribution of non-standard forms and found that girls adjusted more sharply in their formal speech than boys
Eckert Came up with the idea that teenagers were partly self-consciously creating an image, as they used different lexis, trendy expressions and intonation
Trudgill Examined the two different prestiges in conversation and found differences due to social class and gender
Tannen Created the difference model, which discussed six aspects of gender and their separate languages (e.g. status vs support, advice vs understanding etc)
Carmichael, Hogan & Walter Concluded that language influencing thought equals how everyone perceives and treats people because of their sex
Cameron Created an article entitled ‘What Language Barrier?’ saying that the discussion of gender in language is pop psychology and that culture constantly tells us that men and women talk differently
Hyde Found that gender differences were small or close to zero
Chambers Believed that the overlap of abilities of male and female speakers in any given population is 99.75%
Woods Recorded conversations between colleagues of different occupational status and found that even when the woman in the group was of the higher status, it was the man who dominated the conversation
Gray Believed that men and women are psychologically different in the way they think and the way they do
Baron-Cohen Used ‘leading evidence’ to highlight the essential difference between a male and a female brain
Linn Concluded that the difference between men and women amounted to roughly one tenth of one standard deviation
Limpinnian Assumed that males and females were encouraged to mould themselves into a set ideal for television adverts (e.g. the men would look competitive and business minded, the women would have elegance and beauty)
Sardar Believed that women are constantly portrayed in the media as objects of the male gaze by displaying themselves as semi naked on the front covers of magazines read by men
Anderson Believed that most people would prefer people speaking in their normal voice, rather than with vocal fry
Klofstad Believed that vocal fry is a hindrance to young women who are trying to find work
McElhinny Believed that gender is an attribute that focuses more on individuals rather than institutions and larger systems.
Maltz & Borker Believed that men and women have different experiences, operate in different social contexts and tend to develop different skills for doing things with words
Weatherall Believed that women’s conversations are cooperative, whereas men’s conversations are more competitive
Speer & Potter Criticised the current psychological work on heterosexism and highlighted the way its operationalization tends to obscure flexible discursive practices and settle them into stable, causal attitudes within individuals
Created by: 13hored
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