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Lavender Linguists

Studies of gay speak

Stanley Had homosexuals and heterosexuals fill out surveys and found no single homosexual language, but did find evidence that subcommunities may have their own language varieties
Lakoff Believed that pitch is a feature of gay language
Moonwomon-Baird Analysed pitch range between a lesbian and heterosexual woman and found that the heterosexual's was greater
Jacobs Believed that pitch range was hard to evaluate, there was no explanation for how variation was measured and found that topics weren't discussed
Gaudio Had homosexual and straight men read two passages from texts, which was rated by participants, and found that both were distinguished with 100% accuracy
Baker Found that Polari, private language for gay men, build alternative social realities and identities for the homosexuals
Hayes Believed that gay speak included a secret code as a way of protecting a homosexual against exposure, code enabling as a way of performing multiple gay roles and politicising
Zwicky Stated that the gay voice didn't accord with the specifically, often highly culture specific, masculine norms rather than become an exhibition of feminine speech styles
Butler & Lloyd Argued that gender is performed through replicating the behaviours of a gender, which varies between cultures and across time
Barrett Investigated the language of African American drag queens and found that they combined stereotypical white woman style with African American Vernacular English and highly sexual references
Piccolo Found that listeners were no significantly accurate in their identification of a speaker's sexuality, regardless of their own sexuality
Pierrehumbert & Gaudio Suggested that listeners could identify a speaker's sexuality based on aural tasks alone
Harvey Suggested that homosexuals use paradox, inversion, ludicrism and parody to index their sexuality
Cameron & Kulick Suggested that homosexuals use language that produces four related rhetorical effects in response to Harvey's strategies
Zimman Studied female to male transgender men, specifically those who used testosterone in their transition and found that while the female to male's voice was perceived as being gay sounding, their speech was not similar to the speech of non transgenders
Cohen Suggested that Queer Theory serves the more privileged members of the LGBT community before less privileged members
Bucholtz & Hall Attempted to demystify the study of language and sexuality by investigating how sexuality exists in relation to hegemonic heterosexuality and identity
Kitzinger Studied phone call interactions between doctors and members of the public and found that speakers used heteronormative language simply because they were not knowledgeable about the concerns of the homosexual community
Eckert Investigated the language of preadolescents in an elementary school and found that a shift towards a heterosexual marketplace was imperative for the children's status
Coffey-Glover Investigated articles in women's magazines and found that men are motivated by sex, caring for one's appearance is not masculine, heterosexual relationships are the norm and men must make the first move in heterosexual relationships
Leap Believed that there is still considerable room for linguistic research based on sexual orientation, rather than the gender of a person
Smyth & Rodgers Explored the relationship between perception and phonetic characteristics of gay and straight men and found that there was no difference in vowel length between the two groups
Altmann Asked people to read and record a passage and didn’t find any specific features of language used by the 5 gay men participating in this investigation
Darsey Believed that such functions are unique to the way homosexuals speak, and not just features of anyone else’s language
Halliday Dubbed Polari as an anti-language because it was used by members of an anti-society
Eble Believed that there is a 10% retention rate for every 10 years
Created by: 13hored
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