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Praxis II 0014 gram

Grammer for LA test

collective nouns name a group or collection of people/things/places etc ex. family, team, gaggle
subject noun when the noun does something or is being talked about within a sentence "the dog ran quickly around the fence to catch the red ball"
predicate noun when the noun repeats or renames the subject "a classroom is a great place to learn new things"
possessive noun when the noun show ownership "my mother's face beamed with pride"
object noun when the noun is used as the direct object, the indirect object, or the object of the preposition "you will love the sandwich on wheat bread"
linking verbs verbs that link the subject to the words that describe it. "Mabel is happy", "the sun has been bring today"
helping verbs words that aid in the formation of tense ex. shall, will, should, would, must, can, may, had, do, is, are, were
present perfect tense when the action begins in the past but concludes in the present. (Add "has" or "have" to the past participle) ex. "It has taken a very long time to write this book"
past perfect tense when the action begins in the past and is completed in the past (Add "had" to the past participle) Ex. "I had hoped to be finished by November")
voice of a verb tells whether the subject is doing the action or receiving the action
active voice the subject is doing the action in the sentence "I found the treasure chest"
passive voice the subject is receiving the action in the sentence "The treasure was found in the sand"
transitive verb when the verb transfers its action to an object; the noun must receive the action of the verb for the verb meaning to be complete "the girl threw the ball"
intransitive verb when the verb completes its action without an object "His shoulder felt sore" (Sore is a predicate adjective, not a direct object)
transitive and intransitive verbs when the verb can be either transitive or intransitive depending upon the sentence (He read the paper (T) or He read aloud (I))
verbals words that are made from verbs, have the power of a verb, but act like another part of speech (participle, infinite, gerund)
participle when a verb ends in -ing or -ed and it is used like an adjective "The shaking windows broke in the aftermath of the tornado" (Shaking modifies windows)
infinite when a verb is preceded by "to" and is used as an adjective, noun or adverb. "To climb Mount Everest is one of my goals" (To climb is used as a noun and is the subject of the sentence)
gerund when a verb ends in "ing" and is used as a noun "Screaming is pointless" (The noun screaming is the subject"
proper adjective formed by a proper noun and is always capitalized ex. San Francisco
demonstrative adjective an adjective that singles out a specific noun: this, that, these, those (a noun must immediately follow) "This lake is huge"
compound adjective an adjective that is made up of two or more words and is hyphenated "Self-centered"
indefinite adjective an adjective that gives the reader approximate information and does not tel exactly how much or how many "Some rivers flow quickly"
predicate adjective an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject "The Colorado river was once humongous, but is now small"
comparative adjective form compares to two or more adjectives and ends in -er
superlative adjective form compares to 3 or more adjectives and uses -est
two-syllable and three or more syllable adjective forms if an adjective has 3+ syllables and is used to compare (w/ -er and -est) you must use the modifiers (more/most or less/least) when it has 2 you may have to do this as well but not always. Ex. spicy/spicier, terrifying/more terrifying, boring/more boring
irregular adjective when the adjective uses a completely different word to express the comparison ex. good, better, best or bad, worse, worst
article a word placed before a noun which introduces the noun as specific (the) or nonspecific (a, an)
pronoun a word that is used to replace or in the place of a noun (I, me, myself, you, yours, yourself, we, us, ours, he, she, his, her, hers, they, their, theirs, it, its)
antecedent the noun that the pronoun replaces or to which it is referring. Every pronoun has one, it may or may not be in the sentence but it has to agree
personal pronouns replace nouns in a sentence. 3 types: simple (I, you, we, it, he, she, they), compound (myself, himself, ourselves, etc) and phrasal (one another, each other)
relative pronoun a pronoun that connects a subordinate clause to the main clause and uses a connecting word. (that, who) The girl who has the curly hair
intensive pronoun a pronoun that emphasizes the noun it refers to; most sentences are complete without the intensive pronoun (itself, myself, herself, etc) "The rattlesnake curls before it strikes and the snake itself can..."
demonstrative pronoun a pronoun that identifies the noun without naming it specifically (this, that, these, those)
interrogative pronoun a pronoun that asks a question (who, whom, which, whose)
indefinite pronoun a pronoun that does not specifically name the antecedent (somebody, anybody, someone, anyone)
reflexive pronoun a pronoun that places the action back upon the noun (itself, herself, himself) "A rattlesnake protects itself by..."
adverb a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Tells how, when, where, why, how much and how often. (Many end in -ly) quickly, very, extremely
comparative adverbs adverb that compares two things
superlative adverbs adverb that compares 3+ things
time adverbs when the adverb tells how often or how long "She will kayak tomorrow" "She always goes kayaking"
place adverbs when the adverb tells where, to where or from where "The music blared outside" "The boy walked backward out the door"
manner adverbs when the adverb tells how something is done (usually ends in -ly)
degree adverbs when the adverb tells how much or how little "I rarely eat sushi"
preposition a word or group of words that tells position, direction, or how two ideas are related to one another. "The phone slid off the wall" "He walked across the street"
propositional phrase contains the preposition, the object of the preposition and the modifiers of the object. The phrase can function either as an adjective or adverb "Shirley skied "down the large, hairy cliff""
conjunction a word that joins together words or groups of words ex. when, and, but, so, or, because
coordinating conjunction joins a word to a word, a phrase to a phrase or a clause to a clause. the words, phrases or clauses joined must be equal or of the same type ex. and, but, or, for, not, yet, so
correlative conjunction used in pairs for examples "either... or..."
subordinating conjunction connects two clauses that are not equal or the same type; it connects a dependence to an independent clause ex. if, although, because, since, when, whenever, after, unless, whereas, even though
interjection a word or phrase used to show a strong emotion or surprise. usually delineated by an exclamation or a comma. "Whoa! Slow down" "Yea, it's time for recess"
syntax the manner in which words are organized and put together in a sentence
simple subject the subject without all the words that describe or modify it. "Sports"
complete subject time simple subject and all the words that modify or describe it "the team sports at school"
compound subject has two or more simple subjects. "Basketball, volleyball and football"
predicate the part of a sentence that discusses or adds information to the subject
simple predicate the predicate without all the words that modify or describe it (only the verb)
complete predicate the simple predicate with all of the words that modify or describe it. "[the snow] falls heavily every night"
compound predicate two or more simple predicates
direct objects include nouns and pronouns that directly receive the action of the predicate (answers the question "what" or "Whom")
indirect object include nouns and pronouns that indirectly receive the action of the predicate (answers the question "to whom" or "from whom")
independent clauses can stand alone as a sentence because they express a complete thought or idea
dependent clauses cannot stand alone as a sentence because they do not express a complete thought or idea
phrases groups of words that are related but lack a subject or a predicate or both and are, therefore, not complete sentences. Types: noun phrase, verb phrase, adverb phrase, verbal phrase, prepositional phrase
sentences are made up of one or more words and express a complete thought.
simple sentence a sentence with on complete thought (independent clause)
compound sentence a sentence with two or more simple sentences, which are joined by a conjunction and/or punctuation
complex sentence a sentence with on independent clause and one or more dependent clauses "Since my arms are sore, I think I will not lift weights today"
compound-complex sentence a sentence with two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses "My friend Hal wants to go running, but I want to go biking when we get together on Sunday"
4 major categories of sentences declarative (.), interrogative (?), imperative (. gives a command) and exclamatory (!)
Created by: allie424
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