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Physiological Processes of the Respiratory Sytem

respiration exchange of gas between an organism and its environment
inspiration bring oxygen to the cells of the body by breathing in
expiration eliminate waste products by breathing out
air pressure force exerted on walls of a chamber by molecules of air
positive pressure air molecules keep distance from other air molecules based on molecular charge; in this state, molecules are farther apart than the molecular charge would dictate
negative pressure air molecules keep distance from other air molecules based on molecular charge; in this state, molecules are closer together than the molecular charge would dictate
vertical dimension contraction of the diaphragm causes expansion in this dimension
transverse dimension elevation of the rib cage causes expansion in this dimension
passive expiration air leaves the lungs under three forces
active expiration requires the muscles of thorax, back and upper limb, as well as the abdominal muscles to act on the lungs indirectly to “squeeze” the air out of them
active expiration muscles work to pull the thorax down and in (decreasing the transverse dimension) and to expand the diaphragm higher into the thorax (decreasing the vertical dimension)
torque twisting motion of a shaft while not permitting one end to move; force that causes ribcage to return to resting position after elevation using the accessory muscles of inspiration
elasticity tendency of the lungs to return to an unexpanded state, tendency of the abdominal muscles to relax into unstretched state and reverse contraction of the diaphragm
minute volume the volume of air involved in one minute of respiration (quiet breathing)
quiet tidal respiration normal, at rest respiration
volume measured by partitioning off the respiratory system to get an accurate estimate of the amount of air each compartment can hold; discrete amounts
capacity refers to combination of volumes that express physiological limits; represents functional combinations of volumes; more functional units
alveolar pressure also known as pulmonic pressure, pressure that is present within an individual alveolus
intrapleural pressure pressure in the space between the linings of the lungs and the ribcage; pressure will be negative throughout respiration and when one attempts to separate the visceral and parietal linings
subglottal pressure pressure below the vocal folds
intraoral pressure pressure within the mouth
atmospheric pressure reference point in discussions of the respiratory system; it treated as a constant zero against which to compare respiratory pressures
Created by: sullivancl