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PATH test 4

LoganPath1(Exam 4)

Cancer 2nd leading cause of death in US. CVD’s are higher
Benign tumor tumor whose microscopic and gross characteristics are considered relatively innocent, implying that it will remain localized. Patient usually survives.
Malignant tumor referred to as cancers. Implies that the lesion can invade and destroy structures and spread to different sites to cause death.
Adenoma term applied to the benign epithelial neoplasm that forms glandular patterns.
Polyp when neoplasm produces a visible projection above a mucosal surface and projects
Benign tumors fibroblastic cells called fibromas, cartilaginous tumor is a chondroma and osteoblasts are called osteomas
Cystadenomas hollow cystic masses, seen in the ovary
Teratoma contains cells of more than one germ cell layer and sometimes all 3.
Hamartoma abnormally structured cells in a normal location. (totally benign)
Choristoma normally structured cells in the wrong location
differentiation and anaplasia, rate of growth, local invasion and metastasis Benign and malignant tumors can be differentiated
well differentiated to undifferentiated. Benign tumors are usually well differentiated while malignant tumors range from
Anaplasia or lack of differentiation, is the hallmark of malignant transformation
Dysplasia disorderly , but non-neoplastic proliferation. It is a loss in the uniformity of the cells
differentiation. The rate of growth of malignant tumors correlates in general with their level of
infiltration, invasion, destruction and penetration of the surrounding tissue Cancers grow by progressive
Metastasis marks a tumor as malignant because benign neoplasms do not metastasize.
Malignant tumors spread by seeding w/in the body cavities, lymphatic spread or hematogenous spread
males – prostate, females – breast. Most deaths in both – lung cancer. Highest incidence of cancers
AGE strongest factor associated with cancer. Occurrence with really young or really old
Non-Lethal genetic damage Cause of cancer
Monoclonal mass, all the cells came from the same malignant cell
Oncogenes cancer causing genes, derived from proto-oncogenes which are cellular genes that promote normal growth and differentiation
retroviral transduction -oncogenes can become oncogenic by
Oncogenes, Oncoproteins _________ encode proteins called ____________, which alter cell activities, especially replication
Genetic Damage _________ ________ is caused by chemical carcinogens, radiant energy, and oncogenic viruses.
initiation and promotion Carcinogenesis can be divided into 2 stages
DNA The primary target for chemical carcinogens is
Ames test is used to screen chemicals for their carcinogenic potential. It uses Salmonella typhi enabling synthesis of histidine
Direct-Acting Alkylating Agents used as anticancer drugs
Ionizing Radiation/Beta particles highest proliferators affected most by radiation.
Ehrlich – immune recognition of tumor cells may be a positive mechanism capable of eliminating transformed cells
Thomas and Burnet immune surveillance, recognition and destruction of tumor cells.
TSA’s (tumor specific antigens) only on tumor cells, not normal cells and evoke an immune response
TAA’s (tumor associated antigens) on tumor cells and some normal cells.
Oncofetal antigens are normally expressed in developing tissues. The 2 most common are alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, NK cells, Macrophages, and Humoral mechanisms. Antitumor Effector Mechanisms include:
Pituitary adenoma expansile pressure of a benign tumor that can destroy the remaining pit. Gland.
Cancer cachexia syndrome, loss of fat and mass
Paraneoplastic syndromes: local or distant spread of the tumor, cannot be readily explained.
Hypercalcemia is probably the most common paraneoplastic syndrome.
Staging based on size of lesion, the extent of spread to lymph nodes and presence or absence of blood-borne metastases. Bigger tumor = Bigger # TNM system: T for 1° tumor, N for regional lymph node involvement and M for metastases.
Less Differentiated Grading tumors is based on the degree of their differentiation. Higher #’s are ___________________, they look too close to the normal cells. These are grade 4, worst, aggressive.
Created by: jrodx