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PATH tests 1-3

LoganPath1(Exams 1-3)

Virchow Father of Modern Pathology
Endothelial Injury, Abnormal Blood Flow and Hypercoagulability Virchow's Triad
Hyperplasia : increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue by cell division. Skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, renal epithelial cells, and nerve cells do not do this because they do not divide.
Hypertrophy increase in size of cells and increase in size of organ and fxn.
CPK, Troponin, LDH : these are myocardial enzymes used to evaluate suspected myocardial infarctions
TSI antiobody, binds same place as TSH, regulator. (Graves Disease)
Infarcted loss of blood flow to an area resulting in tissue death.
Ischemia : lack of blood flow to an area, (most common type of cell injury).
Lipid peroxidation of membranes, DNA fragmentation and Cross-linking of proteins. Consequences of free radicals: 3 things
Chaperones help in protein folding and translocation into organelles, also in repair of damaged proteins. An example are heat shock proteins
Cell Injury Cell responses to injurious stimuli depend on 2 things, Duration and severity. Consequences of injurious stimuli depend upon 3 things, the type of cell, cell status and cell adaptability
Steatosis Fatty change, abnormal accumulation of TAG’s
Xanthoma clusters of foamy cells found in subepithelial C.T. of the skin producing tumorous masses.
Russell Bodies they are found in RER of some plasma cells. They are rounded eosinophilic accumulations of newly synthesized immunoglobulins
Mallory Bodies are alcoholic hyaline which is an eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion in liver cells highly characteristic of alcoholic liver disease.
Anthracosis a lot of carbon accumulation before lung fxn is compromised.
Hemochromatosis more extensive accumulations of iron causing tissue injury including liver fibrosis, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus.
Brown Atrophy When lipofuscin , or wear and tear pigment, is apparent grossly in tissue as a marker of past free radical injury.
Dystrophic Calcification occurs in nonviable or dying tissue. Occurs in the absence of calcium metabolic derangements.
Metastatic Calcification occurs in normal tissue if hypocalcaemia is present
Hemosiderosis spread accumulation of hemosiderin in organs and tissues. A systemic iron overload in people who take a lot of supplements (most common).
Coagulation necrosis implies preservation of the basic structural outline of the coagulated cell or tissue for a span of days. Presumable the injury or increase acidosis denatures not only the structural proteins but also the enzymatic proteins blocking cellular proteolysis.
Liquefactive necrosis dead tissue that appears somewhat liquid. Caused by disillusion of tissue by hydrolytic enzymes. Commonly from arterial aclusion in the brain, cerebral infarction and bacterial infections. No preservation of cellular structure
Caseous necrosis associated with a tuberculosis infection. The term means cheesy, white gross appearance of the central necrotic area. The tissue architecture is completely obliterated
Fat necrosis – is fat destruction typically occurring following pancreatic injury. It results from the result of activated pancreatic enzymes into the perotineal cavity. Upon inspection the area effected has a chalky white appearance
Lipofuscin known as lipochrome and “wear and tear” or aging pigment.
inflammation A protective response intended to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury as well as the necrotic cells and tissues resulting from the original insult is called
IL-1 and TNF The chief mediator of fever production during an inflammatory response is/are
neutrophils Acute Inflammation is characterized by which type of cellular accumulation:
labile cells Cell that are continually dividing (regenerating) to replace cells that are dying throughout life,they are derived from stem cells, and possess a high capacity to divide are
Virus, persistent bacterial, autoimmune, prolonged toxic exposure List 3 clinical conditions or settings that predispose to chronic inflammation
Resolution The best type of repair. It entails removal of tissue debris and inflammatory cells, drainage of fluid, and probably mild proliferation of the intact parenchymal cells is called
Phospolipases Steroids have anti-inflammatory properties due to their inhibition of the enzyme
Histamine The vasoactive amine found in Mast cells is
HYDROXYPROLINE The three alpha chains of collagen(procollagen) are held together by
inactive protein components The complement system is composed of
infection The single most important cause of delay in healing is
chemotaxis Leukocyte movement toward the site of injury along a chemical gradient is
acute inflammation and chronic inflammation Inflammatiomis divided into two basic forms
fever,somnolence,malaise,anorexia,hypotension,hepatic systhesis, muscle degradation List 4 systemic effects of inflammation
edema The accumulation of water and ions in the extravascular spaces is
PGI2- prostacyclin The prostaglandin that is protective of the gastric mucosa against acid induced damage is
margination During and inflammatory response as stasis develops leukocytes begin to settle out of the flowing blood and accumulate along the vascular edothelial cells. This process is called
COX Aspirin is anti-infammatory by its inhibition of the enzyme
leukocytosis,increased SedRate,Left shift, increased CRP List 3 laboratory test findings associated with acute inflammation
Vitamin C and protein deficiency,Corticosteroids,Infection,Foreign bodies,Mechanical factors. List 4 factors that impair or negatively effect wound healing, give specific examples
macrophage-monocyte Lymphocytes Chronic Inflammation is characterized by which type of cellular accumulation:
Opsonins Substances which facilitate recognition and attachment of microorganisms for phagocytosis are
myofibroblasts In healing by secondintention, the phenomenon of wound contraction is due to the presence and actions of cells called
parasites Eosinophils are characteristically found in inflammatory sites around infections caused by
Organization Repair by fibrous tissue (e.g., scarring) is called
Bradykinin The principal chemical mediatory generated through the Kinin cascade is
C3a, C5a The 2 complement components that are anaphylatoxins are
surface epithelium An ulcer is defined as loss of
Fibromatosis The aggressive proliferation of fibrous tissue with characteristic local invasion is
Laminin The most common adhesive glycoprotein in the basement membranes is
Sinus tract opened at one end and closed at the other is called
fibrosis Another name for scar formation is
stable cells Quiescent cells that do not show active proliferation but that can divide actively when stimulated are
chronic granulomatous disease A condition/disease that results from a leukocyte defect in microbicidal activity is
immature neutrophils A" left shift' is"an increase in
Regeneration Repair by the same type of cells as those destroyed is called
Chediak-Higashi syndrome A condition/disease that results from a leukocyte defect in phagolysosome formation is
vasodilation During an inflammatory response, the resultant erythema is caused by
T-helper cell 1. The CD3+, CD4+ is also called
LE cell 2. A neutrophil or macrophage that has engulfed the denatured nucleus of another injured cell is an
immunologic tolerance 3. The state in which an individual is incapable of developing an immune response against a specific antigen is called
Bronchial asthma Type I
Hay Fever Type II
Positive TB Test Type IV
Erythroblastosis Fetalis Type II
Arthus RXN Type III
Contact Dermatitis Type IV
Serum Sickness Type III
Pannus 5. In patients with RA, the classic lesion formed by proliferating synovial lining cells, granulation tissue and fibrous C.T. is called a
rejection of transplanted organs 6. Histocompatibility molecules were originally characterized as antigens responsible for
RF 7. The seronegative spondyloarthrpathies refers to or indicates the absence of
Dry eyes, Dry mouth List the 2 clinical findings of Sjogren syndrome...
10-20% 9. Of the lymphocytes in the circulation, B-cell constitute about
Calcinosis, Raynauld Phenom, Esophageal Dysmotility, Sclerodactyly, Telangiectasia List the 5 components of the CREST syndrome
Absence of B-cells Burton
T and B cell defect SCID
Thymic hypoplasia DiGeorge’s syndrome
Absent plasma cells CVI
Atopy 12. A familial predisposition to localized Type I reactions is
cytotoxic T cell (suppressor cell) The CD3+, CD8+ is also called
Cell mediated Type IV
Anaphylactice Type I
Immune Complex Type III
Antibody Mediated Type II
Natural Killer Cells 15. Antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is mediated by
Reiter syndrome and Reactive Arthropathy. 16. List 2 seronegative spondyloarthrpathies
Class I HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C loci code for the ______ MHC molecules
60-70 %. the lymphocytes in the circulation, T-cell constitute about
Butterfly rash, Joint pain and chest pain List 3 criteria (clinical findings) required for diagnosis (classification) for SLE
Ankylosing Spondylitis and the B27. With respect to HLA and disease association, the best known is the association of the disease
10-15 %. Of the lymphocytes in the circulation, NK-cells constitute about
Created by: jrodx