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Mr. Stickler's Honors History Unit 9 Test Flashcards 2018

What does the term "New South" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the era after the Civil War in the Southern states. Refers to the end of slavery & plantation life and the beginning of economic development in former Confederate states.
Who coined the term "New South"? Henry Grady, a journalist for the "Atlanta Constitution" newspaper, first used this phrase in an article that he wrote.
What was one (1) key "defining element" of the "New South"? One (1) "defining element" was the fact that the Southern states caught up with Northern states in railroad development.
List three (3) industries that began production in the "New South" during the late 1800's. 1.) Turpentine; 2.) Sawmills (for lumber production); 3.) Phosphate mining.
What does the term "Lost Cause" refer to where the "New South" is concerned? Southerners used this term to describe the Civil War - in the best possible terms - from their perspective. It sought to romanticize the war itself as well as slavery and the pre - Civil War South.
Why did white Southerners use the term "Lost Cause" after the Civil War? Southerners did this in order to rectify their feelings regarding their losing the Civil War. Southerners felt the need to do this in order to retain their sense of personal honor.
What was the Supreme Court decision in the "Plessy vs. Ferguson" case? In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" transportation - and, by implication, other things as well - did NOT violate the 14th Amendment.
List two (2) things that Southern whites fear would happen if they "allowed" African Americans to become involved in state politics in the late 1800's. 1.) They feared the results in cases where an African American representative cast tie - breaking vote; 2.) They feared that support would be split due to African American involvement, which might result in more African American candidates being elected.
What was one (1) way that Southern whites intervened to try to prevent African Americans from gaining political power in state governments in the late 1800's? One (1) way that Southern whites did this was they re-wrote their state constitutions and made sure that there was no way this would happen.
What does the term "grandfather clause" mean/ refer to? This refers to an 1890 law in Mississippi that stated if a person's grandfather had been a voter, then that person was allowed to vote and was not subject to "voter restriction" laws such as having to pass a literacy test.
What was Ida B. Well's role in the fight against segregation in the late 1800's? She spoke out against lynchings.
What did Booker T. Washington argue where "segregation and exclusion" were concerned? He argued that it was time to "adjust to segregation" instead of challenging "the laws and customs excluding blacks".
What was the "Niagara Movement"? This was the name of a group of African American advocates who organized to promote racial integration, civil and political rights, & equal access to economic opportunity for African Americans. Formed in 1905.
What is the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)? This is an organization that formed in 1910 that is dedicated to restoring African American political and social rights.
What was "the Grange"? This was another name for the Patrons of Husbandry. This was a national organization of farmers who organized after the Civil War to promote rights and dignity of farmers.
What was the "Agricultural Wheel"? This was an organization of farmers (begun in 1882) that was more militant than the Grange. It sought to advance farmer's economic status. The group was formed in Arkansas.
What was the "Farmer's Alliance"? This was the name of "a mass movement in the South and West during the 1800's that encompassed several farmer's organizations & demanded economic and political reforms. Helped create the Populist political party.
Who founded the "Farmer's Alliance"? Charles W. McCune of Texas founded this group.
What was the "Colored Farmers' National Alliance and Cooperative Union"? This group was founded in 1886 in Texas. It was formed as a group to advocate for African American farmer's rights because the Southern "Farmer's Alliance" would not allow them membership in their group.
What role did women play in farmer's organizations in the late 1800's? Women held leadership positions in some groups such as the "Farmer's Alliance". The "Grange" only allowed women to occupy specific positions set aside for them. Three - quarters of the Colored Farmer's Alliance members were women.
What was the "subtreasury plan"? A proposal to build a special storage unit & set aside to hold some crops off of the market in order to create scarcity. Advocates hoped that doing so would drive the price of the crop up so they could then sell what was in storage for more profits.
Why were farmers more interested in the fiscal (i.e. monetary) policies of the federal government more than any other issue in the late 1800's? Because farmers couldn't pay their debts if the government limited the supply of currency. When too much money was made available, inflation would occur, which would drastically lower prices for farm products.
What was the "People's Party"? This was the name of the political party that was also known as the "Populist Party". It was formed in the 1890's with the goal of fighting for the rights of working people.
How effective was the Populist Party in getting their candidates elected to positions in the federal government? Seven Populists were elected as U.S. Representatives and six were elected as U.S. Senators.
What does the term "Knights of Labor" mean/ refer to? This term refers to a labor union that was created in the late 1800's. It included both skilled and unskilled workers.
What does the term "American Federation of Labor" mean/ refer to? This term refers to a labor union formed in 1886 as a federation of smaller elite craft unions. This union was created when workers in more skilled trades called for a separate union (other than the "Knights of Labor").
What was the "Haymarket Riot"? This was a bombing that took place in Haymarket Square in Chicago, Illinois in May, 1886. Four leaders of this riot were executed.
What does the term "Coxey's Army" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a protest march of unemployed workers who demanded a public works highway program & guaranteed jobs during the depression of the 1890's. It was led by businessman Jacob Coxey.
What did the American Socialist Party advocate when it formed in 1896? This political party advocated for "government ownership of the nation's major industries and a mandate for higher salaries for workers.
When did the American Socialist Party form? This political party formed after the railroad strikes of the 1890's ended.
What is/was the United Mine Workers of America? This was the name of the union that formed in 1890 for mine workers. Its goal was to organize all mine workers in the eastern half of the United States.
What was the goal of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)? The goal of this group was to create "one big union" of all workers no matter what their trade.
What was one (1) result of the fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory? One (1) result of this was that it led to new industrial regulations and labor reforms such as the requirement to build a fire escape so that all employees could safely evacuate buildings in case of fire.
What was the "single tax movement"? This was the name of a movement that started as a result of Henry George's proposal of "a 100% tax on any increase in the value of land or any rents on land".
What does the term "Social Darwinism" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the idea that only the strongest and wealthiest people should survive and thrive while the poor "deserve their fate".
What does the term "muckraker" mean/refer to? This term refers to journalists who wrote sensationalist newspaper stories newspapers with the goal of exposing "filth" in economics, government, and in society.
How did Congress respond to the publication of Upton Sinclair's book "The Jungle"? Congress responded to this by passing the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.
What does the term "Tammany Hall" mean/ refer to? This was the name of the Democratic "political machine" in New York City.
Who was William "Boss" Tweed? He was the leader of the Tammany Hall political machine in the 1860's and 1870's.
What does the term "political machine" mean/ refer to? This term refers to informal government systems created by immigrants in large cities in the late 1800's in response to government inaction and corruption. Voters supported candidates in return for anticipated favors which were paid after the election.
What was the core belief of "Progressives"? This group's core belief was that real change in the country's political and economic systems could happen if people of good will put their minds to it.
What does the term "initiative" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a procedure whereby citizens can introduce a subject for legislation, usually through a petition signed by a certain number of voters."
What does the term "referendum" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "submission of a law, proposed or already in effect, to a direct popular vote for approval or rejection."
What does the term "recall" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the process of removing an official from office by popular vote, usually after using petitions to call for such a vote."
Who was Jane Addams? She was a social reformer who organized Hull House - a "settlement house" in Chicago, Illinois.
What was the overall goal of "settlement houses"? The goal of these was to organize all social services in poor, urban neighborhoods.
What was the Women's Christian Temperance Movement? This was a national organization whose goal was to prohibit the distribution and sale of alcohol.
Who was Frances Willard? She was the leader of the Women's Christian Temperance Movement from 1879 - 1898. Under her leadership, the organization grew to become a powerful force in the United States.
What does the term "Social Gospel" mean/ refer to? This refers to the idea held by some religious leaders in the late 1800's who felt that improving society was "both the right thing for religious people to do" and was also God's will.
What was the goal of the "Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890"? The goal of this law was to "promote economic competition by prohibiting business combinations in restraint of trade or commerce."
Which U.S. President created the National Parks Service? President Theodore Roosevelt did this.
What does the term "New Freedom" mean/ refer to? This refers to the name of Woodrow Wilson's economic reform program that he advocated for while campaigning for president during the 1912 elections.
What was the main goal of the "New Freedom" program? The main goal of this program was to break up business monopolies to restore competition in the economy. It was hoped that this would "provide opportunities for individual achievement".
What is the "Federal Trade Commission"? This is the name of the government agency that was created in 1914 with the purpose of regulating all business activity in the United States.
List the names of the three (3) Progressive presidents. 1.) Theodore Roosevelt; 2.) William H. Taft; 3.) Woodrow Wilson.
Created by: sticklerpjpII