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MoleGen Ch 9

Replication

TermDefinition
primer a short strand of DNA that is chemically modified and serves as the starting point for DNA synthesis
primer:template junction a particular arrangment of ssDNA and dsDNA
template Provides the ssDNA that directs the additiom of each complementary deoxynucleotide. Provides the information necessary to selectwhich nucleotide are added
DNA polymerase the synthesis of DNA is cataylzed by a class of enzymes
processivity is a characteristic of enzymes that operate on polymeric substrates.
degree of processivity the average number of nucleotides addede ach time the enzyme binds a primer:template junction
proofreading exonuclease this type of enzyme degrades DNA starting from the 3' DNA end (the removal of incorrect base-pair nucleotides)
exonnucleases nucleases that can only degrade from a DNA end
endonucleases nucleases that can cut within a DNA strand
replication fork the junction between the newly separated templates strands and the unreplicated duplex DNA
leading strand the newly synthesized DNA strand directed by elongating the 3' end
lagging strand the DNA poymerase moves in the opposite direction of the replication fork (starts from the 5' end)
okazaki fragments short fragments of new DNA formed on the lagging strand
primase a specialized RNA polymerase dedicated to making short RNA primers on an ssDNA template
DNA helicase unwinds the DNA at the replication fork, creating an ssDNA template that can be acted on by primase
RNase H Recognizes and removes most of each RNA primer
DNA ligase the gap in the phosphodiester backbone can be repaired by this enzyme
DNA helicases catalyze the separation of the two strands of duplex DNA .
polarity Each DNA helicase moves along ssDNA in a defined direction 5' -> 3' or 3' -> 5'
ssDNA-binding proteins to stablize the separated strands, SSBs binds to the separated strands
cooperative binding SSB bound to immediately adjacent regions of ssDNA also Bind to each other
topoisomerases the supercoils introduced by the action of the DNA helicase are removed by topoismerases that act on the unreplicated dsDNA in front of the replication fork
DNA polymerase III primary enzyme involved in the replication of the chromosome
DNA Pol III holoenzyme a large complex that confers very high processivity
DNA polymerase I specialized for the removal of the RNA primers that are used to initiate DNA synthesis
polymerase switching the process of replacing DNA pol a/primase with DNA POL s or POL e . Results in three different DNA polymerase functioning at the eukaryotic replication fork
sliding DNA clamps prevents the DNA polymerase from diffusing away from the DNA by keeping it in close proximity to the DNA.
replisome The combination of all the proteins that function at the replication fork
origins of replication the site at which DNA unwinding and initation of replication occur
replicon all of DNA replicated from a particular origin of replication
replicator the cis-acting DNA sequence that are sufficient to direct the initiating of DNA replication
initiator recognizes a DNA element in the replicator and activates the initiation of replication
origin recognition complex multi-subunit DNA binding complex that binds in all eukaryotes in an ATP- dependent manner to origins of replication
type II topoisomerases separate the chromosomes into separate daughter cell, the two circular DNA molecules must be diengage from each other and is accomplished by this enzyme
end replication problem the requirement for an RNA primer to initiate all new DNA synthesis creats a dilemma for the replication of the ends of linear chromosomes
telomeres the end sequence of chromosomes which are composed of TG-rich DNA sequence. 5'-TTAGGG-3'
telomerase adds the telomeric sequence to the 3' terminus at the end of the chromosomes
sliding clamp loaders catalyze the opening and placement of sliding clamps on the DNA
Created by: taylor_telles