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Part 6 USH

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QuestionAnswer
an extraordinary period of intense social activism and dramatic political innovation progressive era
believed that America was experiencing a "crisis of democracy" that required bold action by churches, charitable organ., experts, indiv. - and an expanded role for gov. progressives
Pinchot and other progressives argued that the US had been changing so rapidly since the end of the Civil War and the nation was at risk of imploding
the growth of new industries had attracted massive waves of poor farm folk and foreign immigrants to large cities whose basic social services -food,water, housing, education, could not keep pace w the rate of urban growth
progressive reformers attacked the pressing problems created by unregulated industrialization, unplanned urbanization, and the increasingly unequal distribution of wealth and power
progressives insisted something must be done to control the very large, very powerful corporations that dominated economic activity and corrupted its political life
had become the most dynamic social and political force in the nation progressivism
progressives wanted to reform and regulate capitalism, not destroy it
most progressives were civic-minded Christian moralists who felt that politics had become a contest btwn good and evil; honesty and corruption
all progressives shared the assumption that governments -local,state, and national- must take a more active role in addressing the huge problems created by rapid urban and industrial growth
more a widespread impulse supported by elements of both major political parties than a single mov w common agenda progressivism
popular in rural areas Populist progressives
populism was centered in farming regions in the rural South and Midwest
middle-class, white, urban; very diverse, sometimes women repubs, democrats, socialists, labor unionists, teachers, social workers, homemakers, blacks, journalists progressive activists
progressives drew upon the new "social sciences" to make governments more "efficient" and businesses more honest and safer for workers and consumers
the progressive approach to social problems to "investigate, educate, and legislate"
what did progressives do made gov more responsive and efficient, and businesses more honest and safer places to work
problem w progressives armed themselves w Christian moralism, but their "do-good" perspective was limited by their racial and ethnic prejudices of the day as social and intellectual snobbery
the goals of white progressives rarely included racial equality; believed in the supremacy of the "Anglo-saxon" race
political progressives at local and state levels began to attack corrupt political bosses and irresponsible corporate barons
goals of political progressives honest and efficient gov, more effective regulation of big businesses, better living conditions for the majority of Americans
the worst economic downturn in American history that brought massive layoffs in factories, mines, railroads, and mills depression of the 1890s
how many adults lost their jobs 1/4
although the US boasted the highest per capital income in the world; it also contained some of the highest concentrations of poverty
the devastating effects of the depression prompted many upper class middle class urban ppl to organize and reform society
another thread in the fabric of progressivism Populism
included political reforms intended to give more power to "the people" such as the "direct" election of U.S. senators by the voters rather than state legislature Populists platforms
campaigned the end of the populist party William Jennings Bryan in 1896
many of the reforms pushed by the Populists were implemented by progressives
"gentlemen" reformers who had fought the patronage sys and insisted that gov jobs be awarded on the basis of merit Mugwumps
supplied progressivism w the "honest government ideal" Mugwumps
the good-gov movement expanded to incl. efforts not only to end political corruption but to address persistent urban issues such as rising crime;access to electricity, clean water, and sewers
a pamphlet promoting working-class reforms claimed "socialism is coming...and nothing can stop it...."
supported mostly by militant farmers and immigrant Germans and Jews Socialist Party of America
served as the radical wing of progresivism Socialist Party of America
most American socialists did not call for the gov to take ownership of large corporations
American socialists focused on closing the widening income gap btwn rich and poor through "progressive" taxation
most progressives were capitalist reformers
most progressives rejected the extremes of both socialism and laissez-faire individualism
most progressives preferred a regulated capitalism "softened" by humanitarianism
progressivism depended upon newspapers and magazines to inform the public abt political corruption and social problems
writers who exposed corruption and abuses in politics, business, and consumer safety, working conditions, and more spurring public interest in progressive reforms muckrakers
investigate journalists whose aggressive reporting educated the upper and middle classes abt political and corporate wrongdoing and revealed "how the other half lives" muckrakers
title of Jacob Riis's pioneering work of photojournalism how the other half lives
challenged readers to take action against political corruption and corporate wrongdoing Muckrakers
used muckrakers to drum up support for his policies; he asked their advice, used their popularity, invited t the White House Roosevelt
began the golden age of muckraking when Samuel S. McClure, began paying idealistic journalists to root out the rampant corruption in politics and corporations
one of the most dedicated muckraker; spent yrs doggedly investigating the unethical and illegal means by which John D. Rockefeller had built his gigantic Standard Oil trust Ida Tarbell
helped progressivism achieve widespread popular support muckrakers
another streams flowing into progressivism religious activism
religious activism was directed at achieving social justice
the idea that society had an ethical obligation to help its poorest and most vulnerable members social justice
mostly protestant mov stressed the Christian obligation to address the mounting social problems caused by industrialization and urbanization social gospel
the belief that religious institutions and indiv. Christians had an obligation to bring about the "Kingdom of God" on earth social gospel
the prog mov as a whole formed a new phase of Christian spiritual revival
the new phase of Christian spiritual revival energetic form of public outreach focused on on social reform
a growing # of churches and synagogues began emphasizing community service and the care of the unfortunate
combined nondenominational religious evangelism w social services and fitness training in centers, segregated by race as well as gender the YMCA and YWCA
intended to provide low-cost housing and healthful exercise and provided many of the same facilities to places w Jews the YMCA/YWCA centers
major forces behind the social gospel mov Christian activists who feared churches had become too closely associated w the upper and middle classes and were losing their appeal to the working poor
social gospeler; wrote a path-breaking book, "Working Ppl and Their employers" based on the principle that "thou shalt love thy neighbor thyself."; prominent pastor; rejected the view of social Darwinists that the poor deserved their fate Washington Gladden
Gladden argued that helping the poor was essential element of the Christian faith
Gladden's efforts helped launch a new era in religious life and churches addressed the urgent problems created by a rapidly urbanizing and industrializing society
social gospeler; German-born baptist minister serving immigrant tenements; published Christianity and the Social crisis; argued that "whoever uncouples the religious and social life has not understood Jesus." Walter Rauschenbusch
put emphasis on personal salvation, must be linked w passionate commitment to social justice; Christianity was a "revolutionary" faith Rauschenbusch
religious life needed the social gospel to revitalize it and make it socially relevant Rauschenbusch
sought to expand the "Kingdom of God" by following Christ's example and serving the poor and powerless social gospelers
Adams and Starr were driven by "impulse to share the lives of the poor" and to make social service "express the spirit of Christ"
began lobbying for new laws and regulations to improve the living conditions in poor neighborhoods Addams and Starr
appointed prominent governmental and community boards; focused improving public health and food safety, pushing for better street lighting and police protection Addams
the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize Addams
the number of employed women triples
women in the suffrage after the Civil War had hoped that the 15th Amendment guaranteed rights for African American men, would aid their efforts to gain the vote
movement to give women the right to vote through a constitutional amendment, spearheaded by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton's National Woman Suffrage Association Woman suffrage
condemned both 14th and 15th amendments for limiting the "citizenship" and voting rights to males only woman suffrage
campaigned for new laws requiring higher pay for working women and making ti easier for abused wives to get divorces NWSA
formed the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone
two grps united as one AWSA and NWSA to form the same yr Wyoming was admitted as a state National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
the first state that gave full voting rights for women Wyoming
where did suffrage mov have most success states west of the Mississippi River; areas w populism - women were more engaged in politics than the East
early settlers in the western territories were mostly men, so they had hoped providing suffrage would encourage more women to settle in the new territories
the West was more supportive of women's rights; wanted women more involved
advocates of women suffrage put forth several arguments for their position 1. women were just as capable as men 2. women were morally superior to men and therefore their participation would raise political process and reduce the likelihood of future wars, corruption, and scandals
women voters and politicians, advocated argued would promoted the welfare of society as a whole rather than partisan or selfish goals, so allowing
women voters and politicians, advocated argued allowing women to participate in politics would create a great engine for progressive social change
leader of militant wing of suffragettes alice paul
obstacles to suffrage -liquor industry - white southerners - some men
the woman suffrage mov was not free of social, ethnic, and racial prejudices of its time
allowed all members of a political party to vote on the party's nominees for office rather than the traditional practice in which inner circle of party leaders chose the candidate direct primary
the first state to adopt a statewide primary South Carolina
progressives developed ways to increase participation in the political process - initiative - referendum - primaries - recall
the first state to adopt the initiative and referendum South Dakota
citizens could sign petitions to have a proposal put on the ballot initiative
citizens could vote it up and down the referendum
whereby corrupt or incompetent elected officials could be removed by a public petition and vote recall
constitutional amendment that provided for the public election of senators rather than the traditional practice allowing state legislatures to name them; direct election of U.S. senators 17th Amendment
the efforts of progressives - brought 17th amendment - direct election of senators
major theme of progressivism "gospel of efficiency"
a Philadelphia-born engineer became a celebrated business consultant; became the nation's first "efficiency expert" showed employers how to cut waste and increase productivity Frederick Winslow Taylor
established detailed performance standards (and cash rewards) for each job classification, specifying how fast ppl doing each job should work and when they should rest Taylor
Labor sys based on detailed study of world tasks intended to maximize efficiency and profits for employers Taylorism
goal of Taylorism to improve both productivity and profits for employers and also raise pay for workers
workers did not like taylorism, just made ppl work faster
one of the most important contributions to capitalist economies of the twentieth century taylorism
political progressives applied Taylorism to operations of gov by calling for the reorganization of state and federal agencies
taylorism in gov to eliminate overlap, the establishment of clear lines of authority, and the replacement of political appointees w trained specialists
2 Taylor ideas for restructuring city and county also emerged in the first decade of the new country 1. the commission sys 2. city-manager plan
placed ultimate authority in a board composed of small grp of commissioners who combined both legislative and executive powers commission sys
an appointed professional administrator ran a city or county government in accordance w policies set by the elected council and mayor city-manager
shifting control from elected officials representing individual neighborhoods to at-large separated local gov from party politics; main way working-class could have a voice
used the bureau's reports to enact such reforms as the direct primary, stronger railroad regulation, etc..... La Follette/Wisconsin idea
widely publicized and copied by other progressive governors Wisconsin idea
the Sherman Anti-Trust act was ineffective bc it language abt what constituted a monopoly was so vague it proved ineffective
little success in regulating big business
gov agencies responsible for regulating businesses often under the influence of those they were supposed to regulate
educated consumers abt harsh working conditons in factories and mills as well as companies' widespread use of child workers as a means of lowering labor National Consumers League
went across the country to clean up filthy slums by educating residents abt personal and household hygiene women's club
women's grps reformers against alcoholism hoped to 1. prevent domestic violence by husbands and fathers 2. reduce crime in the streets 3. remove on of the worst told of corruption - free beer on election days - used by political bosses to "buy" votes among working class
the temperance mov was especially popular in the Midwest and South
an organization based in local churches that pioneered the strategy of the single-issue political pressure grp Anti-Saloon League
the 19th amendment prohibited manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages
progressive reformers pushed legislation to improve working conditions in mills, mines, and factories - and on railroads
legislation to ensure better working conditions and limit child labor was perhaps the most significant reform to emerge form the drive for progressive social justice
the national child labor committee sought to prohibit the employment of yound children
progressives who focused on improving the lives of children also demanded that cities build more parks and playgrounds; and regulation of the workday for women bc of mothers, and to ban the hiring o children below a certain age and to limit the hrs women and children could work
a fire bak out at the "sweatshop" bc its cramped and unventilated work areas; escape routes were limited bc the owner kept the stairway locked to prevent theft; 146 workers were trapped and died - mostly young, foreign-born Triangle Shirtwaist incident
dozens of new city and state regulations dealing w firing hazards, dangerous working conditions, and child labor were enacted across the nation aftermath of triangle shirtwaist incident
Lochner v. New York ruling Court ruled that a law limiting the workday to no more than 10 hrs was unconstitutional bc it violated workers' right to accept any jobs they wanted,, no matter how bad the working conditions or how low the pay
Muller v. Oregon ruling Court upheld a ten-hr workday law for women; basis of research showing ill effects of long hrs for women
Bunting v. Oregon ruling Court accepted a state law allowing no more than a 10-hr work day for both men and women
one way to redistribute wealth the creation of "progressive" federal income tax
the rates "progress" or rise as income levels rise, forces the rich to pay more
progressives believed that such a tax would help slow the concentration of wealth in the hands of the richest Americans
President Roosevelt announced his support for the tax and 2 yrs later his successor, William Howard Taft endorsed a constitutional 16th amendment
16th Amendment authorized the federal tax income
belief that society's capable of improvement; belief that our economic growth was at the expense of people progressive
Believed that social order was the result of intelligent organization
Wrote on the scandals of politicians Lincoln Steffens
muckrakers importance — Most important thing they did was untied fragmented reform movements into one single national political mov; turned it into a reform era
process that enables citizens to bypass their state legislatures to vote on issues initiative
a way to select candidates primary
ppl directly vote who they want as a candidate instead of party direct primaries
goal of settlement houses to bring the rich and poor together
Progressives did not like immigration wanted more focus on self
DuPoint and GE dedicated to developing new products industrial laboratories,
ways to make ppl enjoy work to avoid labor unions create welfare programs, Pensions, buy shares
invented by Henry Ford; cut time and labor in half; led to more cars and charged consumer less Assembly line
many state gov convinced to limit the hours that women and children could work true
some corporations established welfare and incentive programs for their employees paternalism
the US initially proclaimed neutrality in World War I
factors that created an unstable situation in Europe nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and the alliance sys
nations in europe began to see themselvs a Darwinian struggle to see who is the fittest
nationalism fueled by a competition to imperialize the remaining independent areas of Asia and Africa
what made the situation more ominous? Who had arms massive build-ups? Germany and Great Britain; built larger warships
spark that ignited the World War I the assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hugarian throne empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand
while visiting Sarajevo in Bosnia, the archduke was assassinated by a pan-Slavic nationalist; which resulted in Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Germany was in alliance w Austria-Hungary
Russia, France, and Great Britain in alliance w Serbia
compromised the Triple Entente(later known as Allied Powers) Russia, France, and Great Britain
known as the triple alliance (later as central powers) Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy
what kept the US neutral? - Washington's farewell addressed that advised to stay out of European - allowed US to trade w both sides
despite two wars fought w great britain the US shared a strong language and cultural ties true
President Wilson emphasized freedom of the seas
bc Great Britain blockaded Germany the trade w the US and Britain increased while Germany shrunk; Germany said they'd attack US boats in britain and sunk Lusitania, Arabic, made Americans angry; Germany wanted to keep US out of war so they pledged Arabic pledge - make no on attacks on passenger ships w/o warning; but then they sunk the Sussex (french); made another pledge
progressives towards war thought it would distract reform, but then saw social possibilities: expansion of state, sense of unity and national purpose
the democratic side of the war the central powers
before his reelection Wilson stressed that he kept us out of war after he became convinced that US participation in World War I was necessary to make the world "safe for democracy"
reaction towards Wilson's change many joined, but some thought it was idealistic crusade to create a new world order based on peace and autonomy. but many opposed
Germany says to Mexico that when you go to war with the United States will give you Mexican territory that is now part of the United States; Germany is trying to entice ppl to go to war in America. outrages Americans; Germany rescinds Sussex pledge US declares war on Germany
a former muckracking journalist led the committee on public info George Creel
sent "Four minute men" around the country to give brief, impassioned speeches, produced a series of evocative posters to convince Americans to support the war CPI
a derogatory term that alludes to the Germanic tribes of the ancient world that attacked Rome huns
what tipped the balance of the war infusion of fresh american troops
when the US joined the war was @ a stalemate, america joins france and GB and Germany leaders forced to ask for a cease fire; and signed an armistice on Nov 11, 1918 brought close to World War I end of World War I
institution formed to maintain world peace League of nations; wilson after world war wanted negotiate peace treaties; the use rejected treaty of Versailles and american involvement in league
emphasized international cooperation on the causes of the war 14 points by wilson
wilson's world order freedom of seas, removal of barriers to trade, self-determination for European ppls,
the US did not join the league of nations; would have had to approve the treaty of versailles
isolationist republican presidents of the 1920s enacted higher tariffs to keep out foreign goods
Created by: fikott1