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Britain 1665 - 1681
Conflicts between king and parliaments
|Fall of Clarendon
|In 1667 Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon dominated political life in the early 1660s. Responsible for the humiliating defeat in the Second Dutch War. Hyde fled to France in 1667 meaning a new chief minister/s was needed.
|Second Anglo Dutch War
|From 1665 - 1667 the Dutch attacked the English fleet in the river Medway for control over the seas and trade routes. Although England had initial success the war was a victory for the Dutch.
|Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley-Cooper, Lauderdale. (CABAL)
|A group of diverse ministers who operated between 1667 and 1673.
|Treaty of Dover
|In 1670 Charles and Louis XIV of France concluded the Secret Treaty of Dover. Charles agreed to support the French in a Dutch War and to convert England to Catholicism in return for pension from the French. MPs were suspicious of this treaty and unhappy.
|Third Dutch War
|In 1672 the war had begun. William of Orange used propaganda to increase tensions between king and parliament. The Declaration of Indulgence only fuelled tensions.
|Declaration of Indulgence
|In 1672 Charles made a deceleration to grant a substantial measure of freedom to Catholics and dissenters. Due to parliaments strong resistance towards the declaration Charles withdrew in 1673.
|Stop the Exchequer
|In 1672 Charles had to declare himself bankrupt as he was unable to pay financial demands.
|In 1673 an act was imposed requiring all office holders to denounce the Catholic doctrine. James, Duke of York, was excluded from office for his refusal.
|Fall of the Cabal
|Differing opinions subsequently led to the departure of the Cabal and Earl of Danby, Thomas Osborne became Charles II new chief minister.
|In 1678 Catholic nobles and the Queen were accused of plotting to murder the king to put James on the throne. This rumour gave parliament the opportunity to denounce the king's ministers, forcing Charles to dissolve the Cavalier parliament in 1679.
|Two parliaments met between 1679-81 discussing the exclusion of the Duke of York from succession to the throne. Charles strongly resisted the bill despite mass demonstration of support for exclusion. The king dissolved each parliament after a few months.
|Third Exclusion Parliament
|In March 1681, parliament was met at Royalist stronghold Oxford. At the time Charles relieved a large subsidy from Louis XIV. Because of this Charles was able to enact personal rule.
|Those who supported the exclusion. Toleration for Catholics would cause a drift towards Royal Absolutism, on the french modal. Championed popular sovereignty and defence of England's religion and traditional liberties.
|MPs who believed in the power of Monarchy, the hereditary succession and respect for authority. Attacked the Whigs as closet republicans, whose beliefs could destabilise the country possibly renewing a civil war.