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Warm-up and Cool down

Warm-up A series of low intensity exercises and stretches that are related to the sport or activity which aids performance
Cool down A series of exercises that decrease in intensity combined with stretches that are specific to the activity or sport that aids recovery.
Benefits of a warm-up Gradually increase body & muscle temp Increase blood & O2 supply Increased flexibility & excitement levels Increased proprioception
Benefits of a cool down Gradually return heart rate, breathing and blood pressure to normal Restore range of motion and flexibility Remove waste products from muscle Reduction of exercise induced muscle spasm (DOMS)
A Cool Down has 2 phases : Active Phase ACTIVE PHASE = lowering the intensity of movements that are part of the activity or sports session eg. if playing netball or footy this may involve a slow jog to a walk to a stop.
A Cool Down has 2 phases . : Passive Phase PASSIVE PHASE = this is the stretching component. Should include all three types of stretching to assist in removal of waste products which prevent muscle soreness and tightness. Also, an opportunity to reflect on performance and re-group as a team.
Relevant Stakeholders people who work with athletes and have a part to play (or a stake in the athlete) and their performance success. These include - coaches, instructors and sports officials, sports trainers.
Static stretching a stretch held in a challenging position for 10-30 secs & repeated 2-3 times.
Dynamic stretching involves gradually increasing speed, range of motion and movement through sets of controlled swinging typed movements that are similar to the sport.
PNF = (proprioceptor neuromuscular facilitation) involves contracting and relaxing muscles against a resistance. Each stretch should be held 10-15 secs then relaxed for 2 to 3 secs.
Contraindications relates to anything that may interfere with an athlete’s ability to complete activity.
Contraindications can include: Acute inflammation.  Infection  Fracture  Recent Muscle Injury  Hematoma  Torn Ligament  Acute &/or sudden joint swelling  Neck/back soreness or strain
Medical Support Team= professionals that give advice regarding warm ups, training, injuries and conditions that athletes may be presenting with.
Medical Support Teams include:  Medical Practitioners  Chiropractors  Physiotherapists  Osteopaths  Massage Therapists  Rehabilitation therapists
Medical Practitioner (Doctor/GP) Suitable to treat most injuries as they have a working knowledge of the body. Most suitable for serious medical problems like dislocations, fractures and head injuries.
Chiropractor Treat conditions relating to the skeletal system (bones) including spinal and joint alignment and manipulation. Most suitable to treat postural problems as well as back, neck and joint pain.
Physiotherapist Treat injuries and dysfunctions through the prescription of movement exercises and techniques. They provide treatment for: Musculoskeletal conditions eg. sprains, strains, back & neck pain
Osteopath Treat soft tissue and general musculo-skeletal injuries like muscles and tendons. Trained to manipulate these areas using their hands to reduce pain and increase movement. Most suitable for joint problems and flexibility issues.
Massage Therapist Uses their hands and a series of stroking & kneading techniques to bring oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. Best suited for reducing muscle tightness and pain, removing waste products like Lactic Acid and stress relief.
Rehabilitation Therapist Assists with restoring function after injury, trauma or illness. Prescribes exercises and treatment techniques to recover.
Organizational Policies & Procedures= these are standards and guidelines in place that protect coaches & athletes.
Organizational Policies & Procedures include: Work health & safety  Confidentiality of participant information  Code of ethics  Code of conduct  Sports trainer associated guidelines
Relevant Legislation (or law):  Equal Opportunity & Discrimination  Work Health Safety  Privacy & Confidentiality  Working with Children Check
Work Health & Safety Legislation Work Health and Safety ensures that all workers are safe at work. WHS is law in all workplaces through the Work Health & Safety Act of 2011 which is Australia wide.
Privacy and Confidentiality Privacy legislation protects an individual’s personal information. It is illegal in Australia under the Privacy Act to pass on a person’s personal details without their permission.
Code of Ethics This is a set of values or standards under which an organization or employee work. They are moral principles that determine right and wrong.
Code of Conduct A code of conduct is a set of rules which all employees or participants are expected to follow. It dictates correct behavior and procedures for tasks.
Sports Trainers Association Guidelines It is a Sport’s Trainers responsibility to make sure athletes are safe at all times. They are obligated to work only within their qualifications eg. they are not doctors. These qualifications are set by the SMA (Sports Medicine Association).
Equal Opportunity & Discrimination Equal opportunity and anti-discrimination are about ensuring that all individuals are treated equally and fairly in regards to employment opportunities, promotion, participation and access to services.
Working with Children Check It is a legislative requirement under the Working With Children Act 2205 for any person working with children to have an up to date WWC.
Best Practice Best Practice is the method, procedure, process or technique of doing something seen to be the most successful at achieving the desired outcome.
Basic Biomechanical Principles Centre of Gravity Base of Support Levers Fulcrums Major Muscle Actions
Centre of Gravity The center of gravity is the point at which all parts of an object are balanced. This point changes when a person moves their body in different directions.
Base of Support The Base of Support is the area of an object or person that is in contact with the ground. The larger the base of support is, the more stable the object is.
Levers A lever is a rigid structure that is capable of transmitting or exerting a force. In the human body our bones are levers that are capable of such movement.
Fulcrum This is the fixed point at which the lever rotates and pivots. In the human body a joint is a fulcrum. This is sometimes referred to as the axis of rotation.
Major Muscle Actions Effort = any force applied to a lever is called the EFFORT. Muscles cause this effort. Load = is the resistance that is applied to the muscle.
First Class Levers Effort/Force Fulcrum Load/Resistance
Second Class Levers Fulcrum Load/Resistance Effort /Force
Recovery Techniques Ice Baths & Cold-water immersion
Recovery Techniques PROS - Help to constrict blood vessels, remove waste products like Lactic Acid and reduce inflammation and swelling which aids recovery. CONS – risks include pain, breathing difficulties, potential hypothermia and shock.
Recovery Techniques Hot and Cold showers = known as “contrast therapy”. - hot shower for 2 mins then cold shower for 30 secs. Repeat cycle 3-4 times.
Recovery Techniques Re-fuelling and Hydration
Arousal Levels (for sports performance) Relate to motivation and general feelings of the athlete prior to participating or competing in the event or activity. Could involve calming the nervous athlete or increase excitement levels.
Calming techniques lighten the mood with a fun warm up focus on a skill or task to practice deep breathing
Motivating techniques positive encouragement to increase confidence visualization techniques to imagine being successful inspiration using music, videos or words
Self-Reflection Methods coaches and athletes should allocate time to evaluate and reflect on their performance. This can identify potential areas for improvement for future performances.
Self-Reflection techniques Diary/journal Mentoring- support and assistance by an experienced colleague Self-Reflection – thinking about own performance
Created by: georgia.sampson
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