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Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian HNRS HIST Unit 8 Test Studystacks 2022

What does the term "Radical Republicans" mean/ refer to? Republican Congressmen who believed that former slaves should be given full rights including voting rights and should be granted free land they had worked on as slaves.
What was the "Freedmen's Bureau"? Agency created in 1865 who provided social, educational, and economic services plus advice & protection to former slaves.
What does the term "Presidential Reconstruction" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the years 1865 - 1866 when President Johnson "took the lead to provide full rights to the former Confederate states".
What does the term "Congressional Reconstruction" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the years 1867 - 1870 when the Republican-controlled Congress controlled Reconstruction-era policy. (Sometimes called "Radical Reconstruction".)
What was President Johnson's plan for Reconstruction? He supported the 13th Amendment & the idea that former Confederate states must support it as a condition for readmission to the United States.
What does the term "Redemption" mean/ refer to? This term for the years from 1876 - 1890's when federal troops were withdrawn from the South and there was a "return to a 'whites-only' government" in the South.
What were "Black Codes"? These were laws passed in Southern states that kept former slaves "in a condition similar to servitude".
What is one (1) example of how "Black Codes" limited rights in Southern states? One (1) example of this is that African Americans were not allowed to own guns.
What did the 14th Amendment do/provide for? This Amendment guaranteed rights of citizenship to all former slaves and others born or naturalized in the United States.
What did the 15th Amendment do/provide for? This Amendment granted all U.S. citizens the right to vote "regardless of race, color, or condition or previous servitude".
What were "Union Leagues"? These were Republican organizations led by African Americans that "became a base for political action and mutual support" after 1865.
What was "Sherman's Special Field Order #15"? This was an order given by General Sherman stating that all African Americans were to be granted 40-acre parcels of land which was to be allotted from plantations where owners were in active rebellion.
What was the primary economic opportunity available to former slaves living in the South after the Civil War? Their best opportunity was to return to the fields where they had worked formerly as slaves and work the same land, but to do so for money.
What does the term "sharecropping" mean/ refer to? This term refers to an agricultural system that developed during and after Reconstruction whereby poor farmers could use a portion of their crops as payment for things like farm animals, tools, and advanced credit.
How was the "sharecropping" system manipulated by plantation owners? They manipulated this system by creating plantation stores where poor farmers could pay for food and clothing for a portion of their future crop yields. They charged high prices for these goods.
What does the term "Scalawags" mean/ refer to? This was a disparaging term for Southern whites who supported the Southern Republican Party during Reconstruction.
What does the term "Carpetbaggers" mean/ refer to? This term was used by white Southerners to describe Northern "transplants" (people who moved from the North to the South) who came to the South to help with Reconstruction.
What group of people founded the Ku Klux Klan in 1866? Confederate veterans in Tennessee founded this group.
Why did the Ku Klux Klan form after the Civil War ended? This group formed with the intent to serve as a "social group" for its members. However, it quickly changed into a group whose intent was to terrorize African Americans, Republican political officials, & teachers in African American schools.
List two (2) things that "undermined public support for Reconstruction". 1.) Widespread corruption; 2.) The "sheer size of the federal interventions in the South". (Pg. 451)
What does the term "Jim Crow Segregation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to laws passed (mainly in Southern states) that instituted systematic segregation of races in public places such as schools, public facilities, and transportation.
What was the Medicine Creek Lodge Treaty? This was a treaty signed in 1867 between the Comanche tribe and the U.S. Army in which the tribe agreed to settle on reservations.
What was the main disagreement regarding the Medicine Creek Lodge Treaty? The main disagreement regarding this was that the U.S. Army intended for the Comanche tribe to remain on the reservation & become farmers, while the Comanches believed they only had to stay there for the winter.
What does the term "Bosque Redondo" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the reservation where the majority of Navajos and Mescalero Apaches were confined during the Civil War.
What does the term "Ghost Dance" mean/ refer to? This is the term for a spiritual awakening among the Lakota Sioux in 1890 in which they believed "whites" would "leave their land if they returned to traditional ways and ceremonies".
What did the Homestead Act do/ provide for? This law granted 160 acres of farmland to anyone who was willing to live on the land, improve it, and farm it for a period of 5 years.
What does the term "Grant's Peace Policy" mean/ refer to? This term refers to an effort begun in 1869 by President Grant to end the Plains Indian Wars by creating a series of reservations where tribes could live and maintain their traditional ways of life.
What did the Dawes Act do/ provide for? This law stated that terminated all tribal ownership of reservation land and granted some parts of it to individual Native Americans while leaving the rest open to settlement by "whites".
What was the "Carlisle Indian School"? This was a boarding school established in Pennsylvania whose purpose it was to teach Native American children "white ways" and to separate them from their culture.
Which two (2) railroad companies met at Promontory Summit, Utah Territory to join and create the "Transcontinental Railroad"? 1.) The Union Pacific (from California), 2.) The Central Pacific (from Chicago).
What two (2) ethnic groups were "most involved" in building the sets of tracks that created the Transcontinental Railroad? 1.) Chinese immigrants; 2.) Irish immigrants.
What was one (1) development that " . . . led to a huge increase in cattle ranching between 1860 and 1870?" Americans began to eat more beef to due "prosperous economic times".
What is the importance of Abilene, Kansas where cattle ranching in the late 1800's is concerned? This city is important because it was the first "cattle town"- a location where cattle were loaded onto railroad cars for transportation to various parts of the U.S.
What was one (1) "...significant change or downturn that led to the decline of the cattle industry" in the 1880's? The use of barbed wire fencing by ranchers divided the plains. Because of this, cowboys were no longer needed to conduct "cattle drives".
List the names of three (3) states that rapidly expanded in the 1860's due to the passage of the Homestead Act. 1.) Minnesota; 2.) Kansas; 3.) Nebraska.
What is one (1) way that the discovery of alternating current (A/C) power changed society in the 1890's? Street cars were invented, which allowed for a cleaner method of transportation than horse - drawn carriages.
How did Henry Ford "revolutionize" the building of automobiles? He invented the assembly line, which allowed workers to build cars faster and at a more reasonable cost.
What is the relationship between John D. Rockefeller and the oil industry? He made a very large sum of money by focusing on the oil refining process instead of focusing on drilling for crude oil
What does the term "vertical integration" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the consolidation of numerous production functions under the direction of one company. (EX: One company owns a tree farm, a baseball bat manufacturing company, & a shipping company.)
What does the term "horizontal integration" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the merger of competitors in the same industry". (EX: When Walt Disney Studios bought Pixar Animation Company; Pixar became part of Walt Disney Studios.)
List two (2) ways that America's influence spread, affecting countries throughout the world, during the Gilded Age. 1.) A large number of missionaries were sent from the United States to foreign countries; 2.) Increased industrial production and population growth.
What did the Chinese Exclusion Act do/ provide for? This federal law suspended Chinese immigration, limited the rights of resident Chinese, and forbade their naturalization.
What are 2 ways that railroads improved people's lives in the mid to late 1800's? 1.) Allowed people to travel further than 50 miles from their home with ease; 2.) Allowed to people to have better mail service to keep in touch with family and friends.
Which 2 railroad companies joined to create the transcontinental railroad? The Union Pacific and the Central Pacific.
What law allowed President Lincoln to authorize construction of the transcontinental railroad? The Pacific Railway Act of 1862.
What city and state served as the location where the 2 railroad companies that were constructing the transcontinental railroad met? Promontory Point, Utah.
Who was Grenville Dodge? He was the owner of the Union Pacific Railroad in the mid 1800's when the transcontinental railroad was built.
What was life like for railroad workers who lived in camps while they built the transcontinental railroad? Life in these camps was rough with frequent crime, fighting, gambling, and drinking.
Who were the "big four" who invested in the Central Pacific railroad during the construction of the transcontinental railroad? 1. Leland Stanford; 2. Mark Hopkins; 3. Charles Crocker; 4. Collis Huntington.
What group of immigrants made up a large part of the workforce that constructed the Central Pacific portion of the transcontinental railroad? Chinese immigrants made up a large part of this group.
In what month and year was the golden spike driven to join the two railroads at Promontory Point, Utah, completing the construction of the transcontinental railroad? This happened in May, 1869.
What are 2 things that Cornelius Vanderbilt is famous for related to railroads? 1.) He was the most successful railroad consolidator; 2.) He began the construction of Grand Central Station in New York City.
Why were time zones created in the U.S.? These were created to coordinate railroad schedules to avoid collisions and to avoid scheduling conflicts for passenger and freight trains.
What were some of the "downsides" to the railroad industry in the mid to late 1800's? 1.) Railroad companies exploited "incentive loans"; 2.) Racism among workers; 3.) Railroad company bribed local judges and politicians; 4.) Railroads treated small businesses unfairly. 5.) Railroads tried to get out of paying back loans.
What does the term "land grants" mean/refer to? This term refers to "a grant of land made by the government especially for roads, railroads, and agricultural colleges".
How did railroad companies exploit the "land grant" system? They did this by taking land that was given to them for low or no cost and sold it to private citizens and small businesses to make large profits.
Created by: sticklerpjpII
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