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Social Studies 7


Adam Smith An enlightenment thinker who proposed the idea of Laissez-Faire. Economic free market economy- Capitalism Influenced the book “The Wealth of Nations”1776 Capitalism Laissez-Faire “Hands off” Government shouldn’t control economy
Jean- Jacques Rousseau An Enlightenment thinker who proposed the idea of Social Contract An agreement between citizens and their government Believed government existed for people Believed that all humans were naturally good and that society corrupted them Age of Reason
John Locke Natural Rights- Life, Liberty, Property Wrote a book called Religious Tolerance “Two Treatises of Government”
Baron de Montesquieu Separation of Power- Checks and Balances and 3 Branches of Government Executive, Legislative, Judicial) Executive ---> President Legislative ---> Congress/House of Representatives Judicial ---> Supreme Court
Voltaire proposed the Freedom of Press and the Freedom of Speech “I disapprove of what you say, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it.”
Enlightenment An intellectual movement that applied the ideas of natural law to government AKA- the age of reason leads to the American Revolution 3 branches of government laissez-faire- capitalism natural rights freedom of speech 1685-1815
Thomas Paine A writer who wrote a pamphlet called “The Common Sense” that urged American Independence 1776 Declaration of Independence Enlightenment American Revolution
Constitutional Convention Was a meeting of 55 delegates from 12 states. GOAL: To revise the Articles of Confederation George Washington was voted president of the Convention OUTCOME: US Constitution and The Bill of Rights **This is the Government we have today!!**
Declaration of Independence Was a document written by Thomas Jefferson that declared Independence for colonists from Britain. 1.) Preamble 2.) Declaration of Natural Rights (John Locke) 3.) Grievance 4.) Resolution July 4, 1776 American Revolution Enlightenment
First Continental Congress Was a meeting held in 1774 with delegates from 12 of 13 colonies Delegates- Representatives Decided to boycott British goods Meeting took place as a result of Intolerable Acts Established another meeting- The 2nd Continental Congress
Articles of Confederation A document in which was a plan for a new nation; wanted to preserve liberty (freedom) of states by restricting Adopted in 1777 1 Branch- Legislative/Congress Congress could make laws but they couldn’t collect taxes Effect- Shays’ Rebellion
Shays’ Rebellion Was an armed rebellion with an uprising of 1,000 Massachusetts farmers; led by Daniel Shays in 1786 CAUSE: Severe economic depression Massachusetts began seizing the land EFFECT: Highlighted the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Northwest Ordinance Was an agreement in 1787 that created a structure of determining when a territory could become a state 60,000 people in a territory= a new state Banned slavery Established Governor Govt Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin
The Great Compromise A resolution developed to address the question of the number of representatives and states populations. Roger Sherman Lower house/House of Reps- reps would be based on a states population Upper house/ Senate- 2 reps from ear no matter population
Three- Fifths Compromise A resolution 1787 that solved the question of how slaves should be represented in the government. each enslaved person would be counted as 3/5 of a free man 500 enslaves= 300 free effects: kept south in the union preserves slavery overturned in 1865
New Jersey Plan Was a plan proposed by William Paterson; aka small state plan & proposed that legislature be composed of only 1 house where each state had equal representation in that house. Constitutional Convention Opposed VA Plan ** 1 State, 1 Vote Unsuccessful
Virginia Plan Wanted a strong, central government with 3 branches. Executive: Carry out laws Legislative: Congress, Make laws Judicial: Interpret the laws Two House Legislature Upper House= Senate Lower House= House of Representatives
Alexander Hamilton An American statesman and founding father- Born 1757-died 1804 Federalist/ wrote the Federalist Papers Strong Federal Government Established a national Bank Constitutional Convention Killed by Aaron Burr in duel
Anti- Federalist Was an early faction (Political Party) that arose during the writing of the constitution Favored strong state governments Supported individual freedom George Mason Father of the Bill of Rights Feared the president was granted too much power
Federalist Was an early faction (Political Party) that arose during the writing of the Constitution Favored a strong central (federal) governmet Supported the ratification of the Constitution Alexander Hamilton & James Madison Federalist Papers
Judicial Review The authority of the Supreme Court to strike down unconstitutional laws Marbury Vs. Madison Adams vs. Jefferson Federalist vs. Republicans Judiciary Act of 1789 1803- during Jefferson’s presidency
XYZ Affair Was a political and diplomatic episode in 17971798 that resulted in an undeclared war called Quasi War (1798-1800) Causes: Jay’s Treaty- France reacted negatively EFFECT: War fever- Alien + Sedition Acts Quasi War- undeclared 2 year war
Alien and Sedition Act Alien Act- increased the length of time immigrants had to live in the US from 5 years to 14 years. Sedition Act- limited freedom of speech and press- specifically the Republicans
Louisiana Purchase The purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the US government from France in 1803 President Jefferson bought the territory for $15 Million from Napoleon Bonaparte Almost doubled the size of the US EFFECTS: Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804-1806
Marbury VS. Madison A Supreme Court case that established the importance of judicial review Republicans vs Federalists Judicial Review- allows Supreme Court to strike down unconstitutional laws Allowed a checks and balance of power and laws with the Constitution
Jay's Treaty A treaty between Britain and the United States that intended to repair US relations with Britain CAUSE: British seizures of American ships and impressment of sailors EFFECTS: United States agreed to pay debts cause of the War of 1812
Louis and Clark Expedition A journey planned and passed by congress to explore the territory west of the Mississippi River Goals: report back on geography find a waterway between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean
Embargo Act A law passed by congress in 1807 that banned foreign export and imports president ordered this because he wanted to stay neutral Effects: American exports decreased prices decreased which hurt american farmers and planters Americans lost jobs Repealed
War of 1812 Was a military conflict that lasted 2 ½ years between US & Britain 2nd war of Independence Causes: British impressment, Jay Treaty, Embargo Act, XYZ Affair, Alien & Sedition Act Warhawks Effects: Whitehouse burned, ends war with no decisive victor
George Mason A politician and Founding Father of the US. Constitutional Convention (1725-1792) Disagreed with the ⅗’s Compromise Anti Federalists- feared that the Constitutional Convention had gone too far “Father of the Bill of Rights”
Bill of Rights Is the first 10 Amendments of the US Constitution that reflects individual rights George Mason- father of bill of rights First Amendment- Freedom of Speech Founding Fathers 1789- framers and US. Constitution 3rd Amend reaction to Quartering Act
Created by: mbarkley



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