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Judicial Branch

Federal and State Courts

TermDefinition
Jurisdiction The authority to hear a case.
Original Jurisdiction The authority to hear a case first; lower courts; trial courts
Appellate Jurisdiction Courts that will review the facts from a lower court.
United States Supreme Court The highest court in the country; the court of final appeal.
United States Courts of Appeals Appellate jurisdiction; judges and no juries
United States District Court Original jurisdiction in the federal court system; judges and juries; trials.
Judicial Review the Supreme Court's power to rule on the constitutionality of laws and executive acts.
Marbury v. Madison The Supreme Court case that granted the court its power of judicial review.
5th Amendment granted due process protections from the federal government
14th Amendment extended due process protections to the states
Dual Court System federal and state court systems
Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court Virginia Court System; family and juvenile issues; judges; no juries
General District Court Virginia Court System; misdemeanor crimes; judges; no juries; small claims/civil cases low dollar amounts
Circuit Court Virginia Court System; original jurisdiction for felony crimes; appellate jurisdiction from General District Court; judges and juries; Civil cases for high dollar amounts
Virginia Court of Appeals Appellate jurisdiction; judges; no juries
Virginia Supreme Court Appellate jurisdiction; judges; no juries; highest court in Virginia
Article III Article of the Constitution that created the judicial branch
Criminal cases trial for a defendant accused of committing a crime
Felony serious criminal offense
Misdemeanor less serious criminal offense
Civil cases lawsuits; constitutional issues; divorce (non-criminal)
Defendant Person being sued in a civil case; person on trial in a criminal case
Arraignment Criminal case procedure when a pleas is entered by defendant and defendant is officially charged
Created by: ssluck
 

 



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