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Britain 1640 - 1658
The Role of Cromwell
|a national figure through his military success. Whilst Officer in the army he was also part of parliament. The politicisation of the NMA made Cromwell a more significant figure.
|Son-in-law of Cromwell and was a driving force in the execution of the King.
|Cromwell earned the rank of Commander-in-chief
|Stability to political and national life, and secure the broad spectrum of opinion.
|First Protectorate Parliament
|Met in September 1654 and displayed none of the harmony that Cromwell had hoped for.
|Dissolution of First Protectorate
|Reducing the size of the army and powerful attacks were mounted against the principle of religious liberty. Frustrated by parliament's attitudes Cromwell dissolved the assembly in January 1655.
|Rule of the Major Generals
|Eleven major generals were appointed to rule different areas of the country. Provided military security but Cromwell's main intention was to carry out a national reform of morals and behaviour.
|Problems of the Major Generals
|Empowered to suppress taverns and brothels, punishing adultery. blasphemy and drunkenness. This experiment highlighted fundamental tensions between reform and stability which characterised the entire period of republican rule.
|Second Protectorate Parliament
|Met in September in 1656 with 100 MPs excluded.
|Humble Petition and Advice
|In March 1657 this document offered Cromwell the crown of England. Strong opposition from the army and religious radicals persuaded Cromwell to refuse the offer. He did take the name as Lord Protector with the power to choose his successor.
|In September 1655 Cromwell died and his succession was passed on to his son Richard Cromwell.
|Little experience and no strong links to the political army. Richard was forced out by the army's leader in 1659.
|Restoration of Order
|Chaotic instability caused by Richard Cromwell abdication and the military and civilian groups inability to agree on a future government. In January 1660, General George Monck marched to London presenting petitions to reinstate the Monarch.
|In April 1660 an election was held to which majority were in favour of the restoration. On 20 May Charles II was welcome to London on his exile abroad.