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Part 5

Test

QuestionAnswer
a wave of technological innovations, especially iron and steel production, steam and electrical power, and telegraphic communications which spurred industrial development and urban growth Second Industrial Revolution
where was the Second industrial Rev centered US and Germany
Rev resulted from developments 1. modern transportation and communication sys 2. the creation of electrical power 3. improvement of industrial process
causes of industrial growth 1. vast natural resources 2. flood of immigrants 3. technological innovation 4. entrepreneurs
Aristocrat/exploiter that doesn't rlly have any claim to power; they are so far from the line of succession robber baron
side effects of railroads - standardized timekeeping -scandals -robber barons - land grant sys
size of the economy; affected w robber barons building on industries GDP (growth domestic product)
why did Rockefeller choose Cleveland not Pittsburgh Cleveland had better rail service
Standard Oil Trust gave Rockefeller a virtual monopoly over the American oil industry
another way for Rockefeller to keep control of companies holding company
Rockefeller had become the world's leading philanthropist
created the largest steel company in the world during the late nineteenth century Andrew Carnegie
expanded his own business by acquiring competitors or driving them out of business by cutting prices and taking their customers; expanded by vertical integration Carnegie
corporation under Andrew Carnegie that came to dominate the American Steel Industry Carnegie Steel Company
hated the chaos of competition; controlled a sixth of nations railway sys and bought out Carnegie's huge steel and iron holdings, formed the US steel Corporation JPM; J Pierpoint Morgan
became the world's leading philanthropist Rockefeller
an investment bank under J. Pierpoint Morgan bought or merged unrelated American companies, often using capital from European investors J. Pierpoint Morgan and Company
under various names invested European money w American business and grew into a financial power by helping competing corporations merge and by purchasing massive amounts of stock in American companies and selling them at a profit investment banking
buying influence lobbying
a corporation so large that it effectively controls the entire market its product services monopoly
dissolves the Standard Oil Trust bc it behaved like a monopoly Ohio Supreme Court
an economic doctrine holding that businesses and indiv. should be able to pursue their economic interests w/o gov interference; the gov approach to business; "hands-off" gov laissez-faire economy
made up of workers skilled in particular handicraft or trade; formed in order to counter their ad working conditions, allow workers to bargain collectively to negotiate higher wages and better working conditions unions
result of Great Railroad Strike failed; president Hayes sent troops to Chicago to restore order
knights of labor endorsed - bureau of labor statistics and mechanics lien laws - elimination of convict-labor competition - establishment of the 8 hr work day and worker cooperatives - greater use of paper currency
after the financial panic of 1873 major rail lines in the East cut the wages of their workers; in 1877 another 10% wage cut which led West VA to walk off the job and block the tracks in order to shut down all traffic Great Railroad Strike of 1877
resulted violence left more than 100 ppl dead and millions of dollars in damaged property Great Railroad Strike of 1877
violent uprising in Haymarket Square Chicago where police crashed w labor demonstrators in aftermath of bombing Haymarket Riot
Chicago workers went on strike for 8 hr workday; the police arrived and shots were fired the killings angered; on may 4 was a riot and police order crowd to disperse then someone threw a bomb and shots were fired into crowd Haymarket Riot (in depth)
result of Haymarket police arrested 8 ppl for bombing; 7 of 8 were German immigrants and advocates of anarchism
the first nationwide industrial union; endorsed the reforms of previous men Knights of Labor
a national labor organization w broad reform platform, reached its peak membership in 1880s Knights of Labor
nation strike by ARU whose members shut down major railways in sympathy w striking workers; ended w intervention of fed troops - company built a town near its factory required workers to live in town & buy goods from the company store Pullman Strike of 1894
after depression hit in 1893 the Pullman cut wages; Pullman fired 3 workers who complained; ARU stopped handling Pullman cars across the US; tie up railroads and threatened to paralyze the economy Pullman Strike
result of the Pullman strike railroad managers attached Pullman cars to US mail cars; if strikers refused to handle w the US mail it would be a violation of fed law; Pres. Cleveland sent troops and fed court issued a court order to halt the boycott (FAILED)
result of the Pullman strike pt. 2 both the strike at Pullman and the ARU collapsed bc of the injunction issued by fed court
transcontinental railroads enabled the creation of a truly national market for goods and services
first transcontinental railroads were much more expensive to build compared w line in the East bc they -passed thru long stretches of unpopulated desert
symbolized the completion of the first transcontinental railroad when Leland Stanford drove a gold spike
lured millions of pioneers and enterprising capitalists westward - construction of transcontinental railroad - military conquest of the Indians - the policy of distributing gov owned lands at low cost
economic development of the West that held the key to national prosperity - discovery of gold, silver, copper, iron, and coal - the completion of the trans railroad - the collapse of Indian resistance -the rise of buffalo-hide and range-cattle industries
who wrote "the Gospel of Wealth" Andrew Carnegie
provided free 160 ace homesteads to settlers on western land; promoted economic growth by creating new markets for goods and services; spurring railroad construction to connect scattered frontier communities w major cities Homestead Act
2 incidents stalled the emerging industrial-union mov 1. the Homestead Steel Strike of 1892 2. the Pullman Strike of 1894
a national labor organization w broad reform platform; reached peak membership in 1880s Knights of Labor
remained king after the civil war cotton
became the fastest growing industry in the South lumbering
remained the least industrial, least urban, least educated, and least prosperous the South
chief accomplishment of the New south was a dramatic expansion of the region's textile industry
southern economy made up of Textile, Tobacco, Cotton, Coal
supposedly saved the South from Yankee domination and "black rule" during Reconstruction; wanted a more diversified economy, sought cuts in state taxes and expenditures incl. public-school sys Redeemers
rural areas adopted a barter economy in which local merchant would provide food, clothing, see, fertilizer, and other items to poor farmers "on credit" in exchange for a share of their crops when harvested crop-lien system
mostly blacks who had nothing to offer a landowner but their labor; worked the owner's land in return for shelter i a small cabin, see, and share of crop sharecroppers
crop-lien 3 distinct categories - sharecroppers -tenants - small farm owners
mostly white farmers who were barely better off, had resources to farm but still needed to rent land to farm; few paid rent in cash pledge a share of the harvested crops to landowner tenants
able to keep larger share of the crop than sharecroppers tenants; landowners preferred to rent to "croppers" rather than tenants
took the lead in stripping blacks of their voting rights Mississippi Plan
a series of state constitutional amendments in 1890 set the pattern of disenfranchisement of black voters that 9 more states would follow Mississippi Plan
Plessy (1/8 black) refused to leave a whites-only railroad car and was convicted; the Supreme ruled that states had a right to create laws segregating public places, etc.:only one member dissent Plessy v. Ferguson
underlying principle behind segregation that legitimized by the Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson "separate but equal"
new regulations that segregated public places such as schools. hotels, and restaurants Jim Crow laws
involved a black man accused a crime (often rape) would often result in torture lynching
outspoken African American activist launched a crusade against lynching; criticized Jim Crow laws and demand blacks have voting rights restored; found NAACP and worked for women's suffrage Ida B. Wells (National Association for the Adv. of Colord Ppl)
first to file suit for discrimination Ida B. Wells
believed blacks should not focus on fighting racial segregation but instead work hard and become economically self-sufficient; founder of the Tuskegee Institute Booker T. Washington
became the first African American to earn a doctoral degree form Harvard; stressed education as means of challenging segregation and discrimination W.E.B. Du Bois
African Americans who migrated West from the South in search of a haven from racism and poverty after the collapse of Radical Republican Rule Exodusters
what industry dominated the Great plains? cattle ranching
what industry dominated the West? mining
what industry dominated the northeast? manufacturing
violent places; male-dominated w a lot of immigrants full of crime and vigilante justice boomtowns
mainly Chinese workers lured to America either by Calif rush gold or railroad jobs Central Pacific crews
set a typical patter in which mobs of prospectors rushed to a new fine followed by camp followers miners of the 1849 California gold rush
the belief of some Americans that the new nations was divinely predestined to expand across the continent Manifest Destiny
the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country during a given time period Gross Domestic Product
period generating lots of profit and driving the economy of the region followed by hard times boom and bust cycle
(growing mostly wheat and corn) which defied the nation's tradition of small-scale family farming set up large farms to sell livestock for a profit bonanza farms
bonanza farms appeared first in Dakota and Minnesota
marked for its greed and vulgarity, conspicuous consumption by the newly rich that flaunted their wealth - the same wealth that financed extensive political and corporate coruption Gilded Age
the growth of cities brought an array of problems such as - unsanitary living conditions - new forms of political corruption - widespread poverty
researchers made discoveries that improved human health, economic productivity, and communications - adv in modern science stimulated public support for higher education but opened up doubts abt religious belief/social darwinism
3 main factors that shaped the Gilded Age - balance of power btwn Democrats and Republicans - the high level of public participation in everyday politics - corrupt alliance btwn business and political leaders at all levels of government
an era of dramatic industrial and urban growth characterized by widespread political corruption and loose gov oversight of corporations Gilded Age
most important political issue of the Gilded Age the growing tension btwn city and country, industry and agriculture
while industrialists and large commercial farmers prospered small farmers struggled w falling crop prices, growing indebtedness to banks and railroads, and big-city greed and exploitation
discontented farmers would channel their frustrations into political form and enliven a growing mov to expand "inflate" the nation's money supply as a way to relieve economic distress
cities stimulate innovation and creativity, productivity and energy
shabby, low-cost inner-city apartment buildings that housed the urban poor, in cramped unventilated apartments tenements
during the 1880s, engineers also developed cast-iron and steel-frame construction techniques that allowed for taller structures skyscrapers
the working poor (immigrants of African Americans) could rarely afford to leave the inner cities
as population grew, cities became dangerously congested and plagued w fires, violent crimes, and diseases
lacked elevators, 8 stories tall, jammed tight against one another, had little to no natural light or fresh air; housed 24-32 families w alot of children, only 1 toilet for every 20 ppl tenement housing
garbage and raw sewage were dumped into streets and waterways, causing epidemics of infectious diseases such as cholera, typhoid fever, and yellow fever unsanitary conditions
america's roaring prosperity and promise of political and religious freedom attracted waves of new immigrants
btwn 1860-1920 immigrants were young and poor and from southern Europe that were looking for better living conditions and freedom from political and religious persecution
in 1890 4 of 5 were New Yorkers foreign-born
rapidly growing industries seeking low-wage workers sent agents abroad to lure immigrants to the US
the tide of immigration rose from just under 3 million annually in the 1870s to more than 5 million in the 1880s then fell to a little over 3.5 million in the 1890s before rising to its record lvl of nearly 9 million per yr in the first decade
old immigrants mainly protestant and Roman Catholic, from northern and western Europe
wave of newcomers from southern and eastern Europe, incl. many Jews, who became a majority among immigrants to America after 1890 new immigrants
new immigrants dominate religions Judaism, Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholicism,,
since most immigrants knew little if any English about American employment practices they were easy targets for exploitation; lost a healthy percentage of their wages to unscrupulous hiring agents
native-born americans motivated by racial prejudice who blamed immigrants for social or economic problems and sought to restrict their access to America nativists; saw new immigrants as a threat to their way of life and jobs
nativists were Anglo-saxon (people of British or Germanic bckgd.) who thought they were superior to the Slavic - (Italian, Greek, Jews)
suffered the most discrimination; they were not white, not Christian, ould not read or write Chinese
Federal law that barred Chinese laborers from immigrating to America Chinese Exclusion Act
first fed law to restrict immigration on the basis of race Chinese Exclusion Act
formed the Immigration Restriction League to save the Anglo-Saxon "race" from being "contaminated" by "alien" immigrants
Immigration Restriction League tried to convince congress to ban illiterate immigrants, even though illiterate immigrants from Britain and Germany had been allowed to the US in the past
became a form of public entertainment attracting large crowds politics
contributed to the prestige of modern science urbanization and technological progress
middle/upper class families spent free time at home, singing around a piano, reading, playing games/cards, dominoes,, backgammon, chess, and checkers
saloons became popular social centers for working-class men
new forms of mass entertainment such as movie theaters, music halls, vaudeville shows, art museums, symphony orchestras, and circuses
by the end of century sports had become a major part of American popular culture
the most popular leisure destination for urban working-class men saloons, beer gardens, and dance halls
saloon offers fellowship to men who worked 10 hrs a day, 6 days a week
customers of the saloons (Irish, German, etc....) tended to vote Democratic party partly bc the "temperance" organizations that tried to vote to close down saloons were led by Protestant Republicans
"the social and intellectual center of the neighborhood" saloons
the main barroom was for men only; women and children were allowed to enter to buy a pail of beer to carry home
saloons also provided "snugs" separate rooms for women customers 1/3 of saloons called "stall saloons" included "wine rooms" where prostitutes worked
married working-class women had less leisure time than working-class men
single women, many whom worked as domestic servants had more time than working mothers flocked to dance halls, theaters, amusement parks, and picnic grounds
the real movers and shakers of the Gilded Age those who owned huge corporations
used their wealth to "buy" elections and favors from both major political parties and all lvls of gov robber barons also known as "captains of industry"
what dominated the Gilded Age politics the activities of "special interests" those businesses that bought favors from gov officials
during Gilded age most political activity came from state and local levels
party members paid dues to join
party leaders were so powerful in promoting their "Special interests" they demanded campaign contributions from the most powerful captains of industry and finance
small groups of powerful insiders who shaped policy and managed the nomination and election of candidates political rings
a powerful political leader who controlled a "machine" of associates and operatives to promote both individual and party interests, often using informal tactics such as intimidation or the patronage sys party "boss"
a network of neighborhood activists and officials machine
staged election parades, free banquets w alcoholic beverages for voters; settles local disputes, provided aid for the needy, and distributed gov jobs and contracts to loyal followers and corporate donors boss
- decided who candidates would be - determined the party's positions on significant issues - commanded loyalty and obedience by rewarding and punishing their members party bosses
an informal sys used by politicians to reward their supporters w gov jobs or contracts patronage/ "spoils sys"
Rebuplicans favored high tariffs on imports, but Democrats also supported tariffs if they benefited businesses in their districts
party loyalty was a factor in voting; most voters cast their ballots year after year for the same party regardless of the candidate voting
where did the repub party remain strongest after civil war? in the North and West; weakest in South
attracted mainly Protestants of British descent, party of Abe Lincoln ("Greatest Emancipator") and Ulysses S. Grant, rely upon the votes of African Americans in the South and Union veterans of the Civil war Republican party
large bloc of Union veterans of the Civil War who were organized into a powerful national fraternal grp called Grand Army of the Republic
more diverse and often unruly coalition of southern whites, northern immigrants, Roman Catholics, Jews, freethinkers, and those repelled by the Protestant Republican morality Democrats
considered saloons the central social evil around which all others revolved Republican Protestants
president after Grant William Howard Taft
Republicans monopolized the White House except for 2 nonconsecutive terms of NY Democrat Grover Cleveland
national politics was balanced btwn 2 major parties
all believed that Congress not the White House should formulate major policies
brought to the White House a lingering controversy over the disputed election results and a new style of uprightness in sharp contrast to the scandals of the Grant presidency Rutherford B. Hayes
called him "His Fraudulency" RBH
two factions fighting for control of the Republican party 1. the Stalwarts 2. the Half-breeds
"stalwart" in their support of president Grant during the furor over the misdeeds of his cabinet members; mastered the "spoils sys" the Stalwarts
supposedly were only half-loyal to Grant and half-committed to reform of the spoils sys Half-breeds
focused on Republican principles rather than fighting over the spoils of office; announced civil service reform Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican)
an extended effort led by political reformers to end the patronage sys civil service reform
called for government jobs to be awarded based on merit rather than party loyalty Pendleton Act
his commitment to cleaning up politics enraged Republican leaders
the Republican compromise candidate; tried to please the Stalwarts and win crucial state of NY; won the election and was president after RBH, won more comfortable margin in Electoral College James A. Garfield (Republican)
fired by Hayes as head of the New York Customs House Chester A. Arthur (Republican)
believed getting slaves full rights of citizenship was the most important political change President Garfield
after 2 months in office was shot President Garfiled
shot President Garfield twice, a former Republican who had been turned down for a federal job Charles Guiteau
explained that God had ordered him to kill the president; jury refused to believe he was insane and pronounced guilty of murder; hanged - he was diseased Charles Guiteau
blamed for Garfield's death - Roscoe Conkling - the Stalwart Republicans
urged by Garfield's assassination convinced congress to establish a civil service commission George H. Pendleton
a growing percentage of federal jobs would now be filled on the basis of competitive tests (the "merit" sys) rather than political favoritism; prohibited employees running for office from receiving political contributions from other gov workers Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
expanded the federal gov Pendleton Act
president after Garfield President Chester A. Arthur
distanced himself from the Stalwarts and became a civil service reformer himself President Chester A. Arthur
longtime leader of the Half-breeds James Blaine of Maine
bc Arthur's efforts to clean up spoil sys angered many republicans; repubs ditched him for James Blaine (Republican)
as speaker of the house Blaine secretly sold his votes to favorable railroad corporation; letters surfaced linking him to shady deal making blaine corruption
reformers who bolted the Republican party to support Democrat Grover Cleveland for president over James Blaine, whose secret dealings on behalf of railroad companies had brought charges of corruption Mugwumps
a self-appointed political elite dedicated to promoting honest gov. election as "moral rather than political"; opposed tariffs on imports and championed free trade Mugwumps
goal of Mugwumps to reform the process of appointing ppl to gov jobs by making all federal job nonpartisan(not biased)
Democrat Grover Cleveland - supported civil service reform - opposed expanding the money supply - preferred free trade to high tarrifs
he had befriended a widow and that widow named him the father of her child Cleveland scandal
blunders by the Blaine Campaign 1. Blaine went to private dinner w 200 of nation's wealthiest business leader to ask them to help finance his campaign 2. a Protestant minister visiting Republican headquarters insulted Democrats and Blaine let the insult to Catholics pass
won campaign of 1884 Grover Cleveland won but it was very close
President Cleveland struggles to keep Democratic officials from reviving the patronage the patronage sys
opposed federal favors to Big Business Cleveland
an independent federal agency established in 1887 to oversee businesses engaged in interstate trade, especially railroads, but whose regulatory power was limited when tested in the courts Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
the first federal agency designed to regulate business activities; made sure that railroad freight rates were "reasonable and just" ICC
over time the ICC came to be ignored and railroads continued their high freight rates
President Cleveland's most dramatic challenge to the corrupting power of Big Business focused on tariff reform
effort led by the Democratic party to reduce tax on imported goods, which Republicans argued were needed to protect American industries from foreign competitions tariff reform
tariffs tax on foreign imports
high tariffs favored (largely shaped by Republicans) Big Businesses by effectively shutting out foreign imports
boom towns were rowdy but the boom did not last long, mines were used up and the economies of these towns collapsed; residents moved away and became ghost towns Boom town/Ghost town
the nation's money supply had not grown along w the expanding economy of the late nineteenth century but decreased
farmers, ranchers, and others had to borrow money to make meets ends claimed that sound money policy had deflationary effect of lowering prices of the crops and herds, driving them deeper into debt
political party formed following the success of Farmer's Alliance candidates ; populists advocated a variety of reforms, incl free coinage of silver, a progressive income tax, postal saving banks, regulation of railroads, direct election of US senators Populists
began by offering social and educational activities for isolated reformers and their families and later started to promote "cooperatives" where farmers could join together to buy, store, and sell their crops to avoid the high fees charged by brokers Granger mov
these organizations sought to address the issue of small farming communities ; however, Alliances emphasized more political action and called for the creation of a third party to advocate their concerns Farmers' Alliances
wanted to appeal to broad range of people and grps but primarily was a political grp for non-mechanized farmers; gave outlet for grievances and sense of cmmunity Populism
the use of diplomatic or military force to extend a nation's power and enhance its economic interests , often acquiring territory or colonies and justifying such behaviors w assumptions of racial superiority imperalism
to control the Caribbean sea America built 11 new steel battleships, making the navy the third most powerful in the world. (behind Britain and Germany)
the United States purchased the vats Alaska territory from Russia
forced to give authority and a provisional gov to the Americans Queen Liliuokalani
hawaii and US had good trade relations; hawaii promised to not trade w any other countries which harmed its economy and was virtual American protectorate; many immigrants incl American planters moved to Hawaii to get profit on sugar trade which caused man Acquisition of Hawaii pt 1.
many hawaiians to die from smallpox, etc., the Queen tried to restore Hawaii by restricting the political power exercised by the US planters on the island; the US rose tariffs which hurt the Hawaii sugar trade; many non natives thought we should join w Acquisition of Hawaii pt 2
the US since there would be no tariffs Acquisition of Hawaii pt 3
Cubans revolted against Spanish colonial rule; many Americans supported their demand for independence. yellow journalism - sensationalizing the harsh Spanish suppression of the revolt further aroused Americans' sympathy; a US ship was docked at Havana, Crisis in Cuba
the Spanish US ambassador insulted President then resigned later the ship exploded w/o warning; ppl believe it was the Spanish; The President requested force to stop fighting in Cuba, Spanish gov ended ties w the US & declared war after US blockade Cuba Spanish-American/Splendid Little War
the US defeated the Spanish in the Philippines which ended the war, Cuba became independent and the US annexed Puerto Rico. Spain's empire in America ended Spanish-American/Splendid Little War pt 2
a sensationalist style of reporting that was meant to appeal to mass market wrote abt Cuba's war against Spain to help the US status yellow journalism
what was the profitable trade in Hawaii? sugar
a volunteer regiment made up of a thousand former ivy league athletes, cops, ex cons that become bc of yellow journalism exaggerating the battles rough riders
the boat docked at Havana that blew up; many believed it was the Spanish led to Spanish-American War USS Maine
factors convinced McKinley to annex the Philippines 1,. we could not give them back to Spain 2. we could not turn them over to France or Germany 3. we could not leave them to themselves 4. there was nothing left for us to do but take them all and educate them, uplift, civilize , Christianize them
McKinley the motivating ideas of American imperialism 1. national glory 2. expanding commerce 3. racial superiority 4. Christian evangelism
filipinos declared their independence and named Emilio Aguinaldo the president of the first Philippine Republic; the Philippine declared was on the US and the US found itself at odds w its found principle: ppl should govern themselves War in the Philippines
result of Philippine war lasted 3 yrs; America burned villages, executing prisoners, imprisoning civilians. Aguinaldo swore oath accepting the authority of the US over the Philippines and pledging allegiance to US gov
coalition of anti-imperialist grps to protest American territorial expansion, esp in Philippines, American Anti-Imperialist League
official U.S. assertion that Chinese trade would be open to all nations; ad that other nations should not try to take control of Chinese ports or territory; announced in hopes of protecting the Chinese market for U.S. imports Open Door Policy
fist truly activist president teddy roosevelt
symbolizes his aggressive diplomacy; as he stomps thru the Caribbean he drags a string of American warships behind him big stick diplomacy
believed we must use diplomacy to settle international affairs but a country needed to show its military might as well to back up its diplomacy. US needs a large military power Big Stick
Roosevelt sent entire navy to sail from Japan, China, Philippines, Egypt, and Mediterranean to project power; 16 naval ships the Great White Fleet
pursued an imperialist foreign policy that confirmed the US new role as a world power; helped negotiate the treaty that ended the Russo-Japanese war, oversaw diplomatic and military actions leading to the US construction and control of the Panama Canal, teddy Roosevelt
president after McKinley's assassination teddy
sent the navy's fleet of new battleships around the world as a symbol of American might Teddy Roosevelt/Great White Fleet
proclaimed the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine asserting that the US would intervene in Latin America as necessary in order to prevent European intervention
enabled ships to travel from the Pacific Ocean directly into the Gulf of Mexico Panama Canal
growing large quantities of crops or livestock in order to sell them for a profit commercial farming
announced civil service reform; appointed a committee to consider a "merit sys" for hiring gov employees President Rutherfield B Hayes
compromise president btwn Republican Stalwarts and Half-Breeds President Rutherfield B Hayes
haymarket riot president hayes
pullman strike president cleveland
Cleveland reform efforts 1. tariff reform 2. Interstate Commerce Commission
Created by: fikott1