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Main Peeps/Organs

TermDefinition
The Grange Founded by Oliver H. Kelly in 1867, the Grange sought to relieve the drabness of farm life by providing a social, educational, and cultural outlet for its members.
Exodusters A group of about 6000 African Americans who left Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas in 1879, for freer lives as farmers or laborers in Kansas.
Andrew Carnegie The master of the steel industry. Started off as a bobbin boy in a cotton mill. Kept the wages of the laborers in his mills low and disliked unions.
John D. Rockefeller Was a huge part of the oil industry. At a young age, he built the Standard Oil Company, a corporate titan. Considered competition wasteful, small scale enterprise inefficient, and consolidation vital. He absorbed or destroyed competitors.
Terence Powderly The grand master workman of the Knights of Labor, ended the secrecy of the organization, and began to recruit aggressively. Spun dreams of a new era of harmony and cooperation.
Samuel Gompers Founder of the American Federation of Labor. Was also the president of this organization. He assumed that most workers would remain workers throughout their lives. Accepted capitalism and did not argue for fundamental changes in it.
Eugene Debs Leader of the Pullman Strike in May of 1894. This strike was against the American Railway Union, in which Debs refused to handle trains that carried Pullman sleeping cars. Ran for president in 1900 as a socialist.
Knights of Labor This labor organization pursued broad reform and practical issues such as improved wages and hours. Welcomed all laborers regardless of race,gender,or skill.
American Federation of Labor Organized skill workers by craft and pursed specific practical objectives, such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions.
Populist Party Was organized in 1892 by farm, labor, and reform leaders. It offered a broad-based reform platform reflecting the Ocala Demands.
Boss Tweed Head of the famed Tweed Ring, provided the model for all political bosses. Rising through the ranks of Tammany Hall. He headed a ring that plundered New York for tens of millions of dollars.
Upton Sinclair Muckraker, writer of The Jungle, a novel which revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on what he had seen.
Ida B. Wells African American journalist who published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcars or shop in white owned stores
Susan B Anthony Formed the National Woman Suffrage Association to work for the enfranchisement of women. Tried to vote in the 1872 presidential election and was fined $100 which she refused to pay.
WEB DuBois A brilliant African American sociologist and civil rights leader. Fought for African American rights. Helped to found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights.
William Jennings Bryan United States lawyer and politician and advocated free silver and prosecute John Scopes for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school
Theodore Roosevelt Wanted to annex the Philippines, was a member of the rough riders, and was a president during the progressive era. Made conservation one of his administration’s top goals.
Robert LaFollette Governor of Wisconsin between 1901, he developed the “Wisconsin Idea” one of the most important reform programs in the history of state government. He established an industrial commission the first in the country to regulate factory safety and sanitation
Jacob Riis Danish Immigrant, who reported terrible conditions of tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants live during the late 1800s. He wrote The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Booker T. Washington Ex-slave. Saved his money to buy himself education. Believed that blacks must gain economic equality before they gain social equality. Believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society.
Jane Addams Founder of Settlement House Movements. First woman to earn a Nobel Peace Prize In 1931 as president of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.
Frances Willard American educator, temperance reformer, and women's suffragist. Her influence was instrumental in the passage of the 18th and 19th amendments to the US constitution. Was the president of the World Woman's Temperance Union
Henry Cabot Lodge Chairman of the Senate foreign Relations committee he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations.
Alfred Thayer Mahan Pro- imperialist advocate of a bigger, stronger navy and colonies to support it. Wrote the Influence of Sea Power upon history, which argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance.
Sanford B. Dole Wealthy plantation owner and politician who was named President of New Republic of Hawaii. He asked the US to annex Hawaii.
NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was established in 1909 and is America's oldest and largest civil rights organization. Created by DuBois and Wells to advance the cause of civil rights in the late 1800s
William Taft Was the 27th president of the United States and the tenth chief justice of the United States. Created the dollar diplomacy and got stuck in a bathtub.
Woodrow Wilson 28th president of the United States and was president during the first World War. Created the fourteen points to present to the League of Nations who rejected it. Strong advocate for democracy and world peace. Progressive president.
John J Pershing An American general who led troops in the Battle of Argonne Forest, which was one of the longest lasting battles. He was the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I.
American Expeditionary Force Consisted of the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe under the command of General John J. Pershing in 1917 to help fight World War I. Fought in France alongside French and British allied forces against German forces
Tuskegee Airmen 332 Fighter group famous for shooting down over 200 enemy planes. African American pilots who trained at the Tuskegee flying school. Strongly opposed by the former all- white Army Air Corps.
Flying Tigers 1st American Volunteer group of the Chinese Air Force, trained in Burma before the American entry into the war with the intention of defending China Against Japanese forces
Navajo Code Talkers Native Americans from the Navajo tribe who used their own language to make a code for the U.S. military that the Japanese could not decipher
Franklin Roosevelt 32nd president of the U.S , who acted to restore public confidence during the Great Depression, was re-elected in 1936,1940, and 1944, led the United States from isolationism to victory over Nazi Germany. Laid the groundwork work for the United Nations.
League of Nations A plan proposed by Wilson in his 14 points. An assembly with seats for all nations and a special council for the great powers. However, the U.S did not join.
Clarence Darrow A criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. Caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when he questioned Bryan about the Bible.
KKK A group against all groups who did not have a Protestant background. Mostly prevalent in the South. Known for lynching people without this background and people of color.
Vernon Baker Was a United States Army first lieutenant who was an infantry company platoon leader during WWII.Only African American to receive the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions during the war.
Douglas MacArthur United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II
Dwight Eisenhower Was the 34th president. During WWII, was a five star general in the United States Army and served as supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces. Strengthened the Social Security program, created the department of health.
Harry Truman 33rd president. Implemented the Marshall Plan to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, and established the Truman Doctrine and NATO.
HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee) Was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties.
Black Panthers A political organization founded in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to challenge police brutality against the African American community.
Martin Luther King Jr. Was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the Civil Rights movement from 1955 until his assassination in 1968.
Malcolm X Minister of the Nation Of Islam urged blacks to claim their rights by any means necessary, more radical than other civil rights leaders of the time.
SNCC (“Snick” Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee) Organization which provided larger roles for younger African Americans regarding Civil Rights and became more militant to receive immediate change.
CORE (Congress on Racial Equality) An organization founded in 1942 that worked for black civil rights.
AIM (American Indian Movement) A Native American organization founded in 1968 to protest government policies and injustices suffered by Native Americans
UFW (United Farm Workers) Is a union for agricultural laborers, primarily in California. Founded by charismatic leader Caesar Chavez, UFW reaches the peak of its influence in the 1970’s.
Cesar Chavez Was an American Labor leader and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Worker Association in 1962.
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
NOW (National Organization for Women) An organization formed to work for economic and legal rights of women. Demanded equality in educational and job opportunities, wages, and political representation.
Sandra Day O’Connor The first woman to be in the Supreme Court. Appointed by Ronald Reagan, O’Connor was an associate justice from 1981 until 2006.
Created by: HayClemm01