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Unit Seven

The Reconstruction The period of rebuilding that followed the Civil War, during which the defeated Confederate states were readmitted to the Union
John Wilkes Booth American actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865 ----- a member of the prominent 19th-century Booth theatrical family from Maryland and a well-known actor in his own right
Radical Republican One of the congressional Republicans who, after the Civil War, wanted to destroy the political power of former slaveholders and to give African Americans full citizenship and the right to vote
Thaddeus Stevens A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South ---- Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress
Wade-Davis Bill A bill, passed in 1864 and vetoed by President Lincoln, that would have given Congress control of Reconstruction
Freedmen's Bureau A federal agency set up to help former slaves after the Civil War
Civil Rights Acts of 1866 Declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition
Reconstruction Act of 1867 Established a temporary military government in ten Confederate states and required them to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and permit freedmen to vote
Impeach To formally charge an official with misconduct in office --- the House of Representatives has the sole power to impeach federal officials
Black Codes The discriminatory laws passed throughout the post-CW South which severely restricted African Americans' lives, prohibiting such activities as traveling without permits, carrying weapons, serving on juries, testifying against whites, and marrying whites
Scalawags White Southerners who joined the Republican Party after the Civil War
Carpetbaggers A Northerner who moved to the South after the Civil War
Sharecropping A system in which landowners give farm workers land, seed, and tools in return for a part of the crops they raise
Tenant Farming A system in which farm workers supply their own tools and rent farmland for cash
Ku Klux Klan A secret organization that used terrorist tactics in an attempt to restore white supremacy in Southern states after the Civil War
Compromise of 1877 A series of congressional measures under which the Democrats agreed to accept the Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes as president, even though he had lost the popular vote
Redemption The Southern Democrats' term for their return to power in the South in the 1870s
Home Rule A state's powers of governing its citizens without federal government involvement
Jim Crow Laws Laws enacted by Southern state and local governments to separate white and black people in public and private facilities
Segregation The separation of people on the basis of race
NAACP The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People --- an organization founded in 1909 to promote full racial equality
Ida B. Wells An African-American investigative journalist, educator, and an early leader in the Civil Rights Movement ----- born into slavery in Holly Springs, Mississippi
Booker T. Washington An African-American educator of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, who headed Tuskegee Institute, a college for African-Americans in Alabama
W.E.B. DuBois American sociologist, historian, author, editor, and activist who was the most important black protest leader in the United States during the first half of the 20th century
Plessy v. Ferguson AN 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, thus establishing the "separate but equal" doctrine
10% Plan Lincolns plan that allowed a southern state to form a new government after 10 % of its voters swore loyalty to the United States
13th Amendment An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1865, that has abolished slavery and involuntary servitude
14th Amendment An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1868, that makes all persons born or naturalized in the United States --- including former slaves --- citizens of the country and guarantees equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1870, that prohibits the denial of voting rights to people because of their race or color or because they have previously been slaves
Ulysses S. Grant 18th President of the United States; commander of the Union armies in the American Civil War (1822-1885)
Rutherford B. Hayes 19th President of the United States; his administration removed federal troops from the South and so ended the Reconstruction Period (1822-1893)
Dawes Act A law, enacted in 1887, that was intended to "Americanize" Native Americans by distributing reservation land to individual owners
Homestead Act Law enacted in 1862, that provided 160 acres in the West to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of household and would cultivate the and for five years
Bonanza Farms An enormous farm on which a single crop is grown
John D. Rockefeller American industrialist and philanthropist, founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust
Andrew Carnegie United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
Horizontal Integration The merging of companies that make similar products
Vertical Integregation A company's taking over its suppliers and distributors and transportation systems to gain total control over the quality and cost of its product
James Garfield 20th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his death by assassination six and a half months later
Chester A. Arthur American attorney and politician who served as the 21st president of the United States from 1881 to 1885 ----- 20th vice president of the United States and became president upon the death of President James Garfield in September 1881
Grover Cleveland 22nd and 24th president of the United States (1885–89 and 1893–97) and the only president ever to serve two discontinuous terms
Benjamin Harrison 23rd president of the United States (1889–93), a moderate Republican who won an electoral majority while losing the popular vote by more than 100,000 to Democrat Grover Cleveland
Civil Service Act Landmark U.S. legislation establishing the tradition and mechanism of permanent federal employment based on merit rather than on political party affiliation (the spoils system)
Buffalo Soldier Nickname given to members of African American cavalry regiments of the U.S. Army who served in the western United States from 1867 to 1896
Seward's Folly The transaction in 1867 in which the United States Secretary of State William Henry Seward purchased Alaska from Russia
Created by: sarah23me1
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