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Britain 1649 - 1660
|Restoration in 1660
|Several attempts were made to establish a stable republican regime acceptable to the country as a whole. Each experiment failed leading to the restoration of the Monarch
|Between 1649 to 1653 MPs excluded in Pride's purge were reintroduced to Parliament. These MPs were mainly conservative and therefore less likely to enact reforms compared to the army. This increased tensions between the two influences in the government.
|Monarchy and House of Lords were abolished. England was then declared as a Commonwealth.
|An Irish invasion was on the cards in order to reinstate Charles II as King. Cromwell landed in Ireland in July 1649 and set to restore the English rule. He massacred the garrison at Drogheda and Wexford due to refusal to surrender.
|Cromwell left his generals to subjugate Ireland to return to England in 1650 as a threat in Scotland emerged. Scottish officer David Leslie handed his powerful army to Charles II, provoking a third civil war.
|Third Civil War
|Scotland declared Charles II as monarch of England. Cromwell defeated the Scots at Dunbar in 1650, and in 1651 he destroyed Charles II's armies at Worcester
|Result of Third Civil War
|Charles fled to France, he spent nine years in exile. Cromwell success ensured the survival of the republican government, and increased the prestige of the armed forces.
|Failure of Rump
|- the conservative nature of the rump - limited finances - resources dedicated to Ireland, Scotland and the Dutch War in 1652 - fear of radical groups - fear of NMA
|In 1653 members were nominated by the government to form the Nominated Assembly. Religious radicals determined to establish godly rule in the country.
|- civil marriage was legalised - registers for births, marriages and deaths were established - revenue system was formed
|Assembly loss of support
|Radical proposals such as abolishing the tithe forced conservative members to hand back the Assembly's powers to Cromwell
|End of the Commonwealth
|In 1653 the Instrument of Government of 1653 was formed to give long term republic stability. Commonwealth was replaced by the protectorate. Council of state ran the government, parliament elected every 3 years and Oliver Cromwell appointed Lord Protector