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Texas 1861-1876

Info pertaining to the Civil War and the Reconstruction Era of Texas History

13th Amendment Involuntary Servitude is prohibited in the United States (slaves are free)
14th Amendment All people born or naturalized in the United States are citizens of the United States No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law or deny any person equal protection under the law
15th Amendment All male American citizens over the age of 18 has the right to vote.
Black Codes Laws limiting the rights of freedmen (example: requiring that blacks have written proof of employment or return to slavery).
Freedman's Bureau An agency that provided food, clothing, shelter, jobs, and education for freedmen; largely responsible for the creation of public schools for the black population.
Juneteenth Texas Emancipation Day, takes place on June 19, 1865, when General Granger arrives on the shores of Galveston to manage this military district and learns slavery still exists.
Abraham Lincoln President of the US during the Civil War and uses trains and telegraphs to outmaneuver the South. Issues the Emancipation Proclamation that (theoretically) sets the slaves free.
Andrew Johnson Lincoln's vice president for his second term, an ex-slave-holder that takes over following his assassination and wants to go easy on the South trying to return to US.
Radical Republicans Group of Northern Republicans that wanted the South to demonstrate a better understanding of their mistakes made concerning slavery, secession, and the Civil War. Came up with a strict plan for the South to be readmitted to the USA
General Robert E. Lee General and leader of the Confederate Armies of the South.
General Ulysses S. Grant General of the Union Armies of the North
Confederate States of America The states that seceded from the USA to stand up for their way of life that accepted slavery.
Reconstruction Act of 1867 Created by the Radical Republicans, this divided the South into 5 military districts, forced Southern states to write entirely new constitutions, guaranteed freedom, citizenship, and voting rights (13th, 14th, 15th amendments) for Freedmen.
Constitution of 1869 This Texas Constitution allowed Texas to be readmitted to the USA and stated that the US Constitution is supreme law, all men could vote, created a public school and law enforcement systems, and terms for state office.
Constitution of 1876 The current Texas Constitution with over 400 amendments!
Ku Klux Klan A group of people who wore masks and sheets to hide their identity while they terrorized black communities in the South.
Emancipation Proclamation Statement made by Abraham Lincoln that called for the liberation (freedom) of slaves beginning January 1, 1863.
Secession Starting with South Carolina, several states, including Texas, left the United States of America (USA) to form the Confederate States of America (CSA) to stand up for their right to slavery.
South Carolina The Southern state to leave the United States. Also, the location of the first shot fired in what would be the Civil War (Ft. Sumter)
Hood's Texas Brigade Led by John Bell Hood, 60-70,000 Texan men joined the Confederate Armies.
Shiloh, Tennessee Early in the war, this was a battle for the Northern part of the Mississippi River because the Confederacy would use this waterway to ship supplies to armies in the North. General Johnston was on the verge of winning when he was shot in the leg.
Port of Galveston Island One of the largest ports in the South, ships were loaded with supplies to sail to various points along the East Coast to fortify the Confederate troops. Taken over by the North and then reclaimed by the South.
Cotton-Clad Boats Boats that were piled high with thick cotton as armor so that General Magruder and his troops could retake Galveston Island.
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Turning point of the Civil War was July 1-3 when Hood's Texas Brigade nearly won but were unsuccessful. From this battle forward, the Confederates were on the defense and retreating.
Vicksburg, Mississippi 6 week battle in which the townspeople were forced to hide in caves and resorted to eating whatever they could find (rats, etc). It would be 80 years before the town would officially celebrate Independence Day.
Brownsville, Texas Southern-most town in Texas where the last battle of the Civil War was fought (Palmito Ranch).
Appommattox Courthouse, Virginia The location where General Lee (S) met with and surrendered to General Grant (N) on April 9, 1865.
Fort Sumter, South Carolina "The bloodless start to the bloodiest war"...The South fires the first shot of the Civil War. No one died.
April 9, 1865 The date General Lee (S) surrendered to General Grant (N) that ended the war with the North as victors and the South in the position of rejoining the USA.
General Albert Sydney Johnston Commander of Confederate troops West of the Mississippi, 2nd in command to General Robert E. Lee.
Reconstruction Amendments 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments that set slaves free, made every child born in the US a citizen, and allowed all male citizens to vote
Buffalo Soldiers (Texas) Black men of the 9th and 10th Cavalry that worked to establish and settle the Western Frontier by building roads, bridges and structures and fought against raiding natives.
Quanah Parker The last of the great Comanche chiefs, he fought against and then worked with the white man to help his tribe to adapt to the lifestyle of the settlers before finally surrendering and entering a reservation.
Cynthia Parker The mother of Quanah who was kidnapped by the Comanche as a child and raised by them. Would go on to marry a chief and build a family. Died of a broken heart when she was "rescued" and returned to white society.
Henry O. Flipper The first African American to graduate from West Point Academy and become an officer (not just a soldier).
Jim Crow Laws Laws passed to discourage the progress of African Americans, such as Poll Taxes and Literacy Tests.
Palmito Ranch (Brownsville) Last battle of the Civil War was held near the Southern-most town of Texas.
Share-cropping Needy people were loaned land and equipment by wealthy land-owners to grow crops and, in return, automatically gave up half the profit. Often they would need to borrow even more and would, almost always, go into debt.
Railroads 1876-1885 Half of Texas' railroads were built in this 10 year period and towns sprung up along these lines, all across Texas. These allowed farmers to improve their income by providing shipping routes.
Windmills New technology allowed Texans to pull water from underground aquifers and could now settle in West Texas, where there isn't a lot of rainfall or above-ground water. These are still valuable today.
The Chisolm Trail The trail that runs through the Fort Worth area, for which nearby schools are named.
Indian Reservations Land set aside for the Native Americans to be forced onto so that Americans could continue to expand Westward. Oklahoma was one of the largest reservations.
Cattle Trails Coming home from the Civil War, there were countless Longhorn cattle roaming the Texas countryside. These were rounded up, claimed and branded by their owners and then driven (walked) North to the railroad lines that would carry them to the big cities.
Barbed Wire An invention that ended the Open Range Era when landowners began to fence off their property.
Buffalo Hunters Not to be confused with the Plains Indians, Americans hunted buffalo for their hides only and left the carcass on the prairie where they were killed. Significantly reduced the buffalo population.
King Cotton The #1 crop in Texas, as windmills allowed for improved irrigation, farmers were drawn to this crop because of its strength to grow in difficult terrain.
The Cotton Gin A machine invented during this time that swiftly pulled the seeds from cotton, causing an increase in productivity.
Created by: Prof_Rhine
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