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Britain 1642 - 1649
The First Civil War and failure to reach a negotiated settlement
|First Civil War 1642
|Charles had the advantage with the support of the gentry, nobility and royalist generals who were professionals fighting the Thirty Years War. Edgehill, Warwickshire was a draw but royalists advanced South in hope of taking a London
|First Civil War 1642
|However the King's armies were held up at Turnham Green by a large band of volunteers who prevented the royalists from taking the Capital.
|First Civil War 1643
|A three ponged attack from north, south west and the west from the Royalists was thwarted by the parliaments navy. Naval bases in Hull, Plymouth and Gloucester were strongholds deterring royalist commanders from moving against London
|First Civil War 1644
|Parliament's control of superior finances and resources began to turn the tide of war in its favour. Scots also agreed to the Solemn League of Covenant. As a result Marston Moor in Yorkshire was a major victory for parliament.
|Solemn League of Covenant
|an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters and the leaders of the English Parliamentarians in 1643 during the First English Civil War.
|First Civil War 1645
|Self-Denying ordinance allowed generals of proven military ability to be appointed. Parliamentary forces were reorganised into the New Model Army.
|New Model Army
|Formed under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell. They overpowered the royalist forces in West and South-west particularly the ultimate battle in Naseby in June.
|First Civil War 1646
|Charles left his stronghold at Oxford and surrendered to the Scots. In June the First Civil War ended
|Divisions in Parliament
|Political Presbyterians had close ties with Scotland's military leaders while the Political Independents were linked to the recently formed New Model Army. Charles thought his opponents' alliance would crumble due to divisions
|In 1646 Presbyterians put forward the preposition: -Bishops office in Anglican church to be abolished -Strict anti-catholic laws were to be enforced -Parliament took control of armed forces for 20 years
|What was the result of the prepositions?
|By the end of 1646 the negotiations broke down and in January 1647 the Scots handed the king over to parliament. Due to Charles stubborn nature and the anticipation that Parliament would divide he stalled waiting for an offer that suited him.
|Heads of Proposals
|Formed by the army they demanded - Parliament should meet every two years - Constituencies reorganised to reflect population size and local wealth - Anglican bishops were to remain
|What was Charles reactions to the Heads of Proposals?
|Whilst considering these proposals he engaged in secret discussions with the Scots. He signed an agreement with the Scots in December 1647 promising to impose Presbyterianism in England for three years in exchange for a Scottish army
|Second Civil War 1648
|Fairfax put down royalist risings in the south of England whilst Cromwell destroyed the Scottish army at the battle of Preston. Parliamentarians were victorious
|Events after Second Civil War
|the Remonstrance was published declaring Charles I was guilty of high treason in starting the Second Civil War, and should be put on trial.
|On the 6th December in 1648 Parliament wanted to negotiate with the King but the New Model Army arrested 45 MPs and excluded a further 186 from Commons.
|Trial and execution of Charles I
|Charles refused to accept that any court had the power to place a divinely appointed monarch on trial, and would not answer the charges made against him. Court found him guilty of all charges and sentenced death. The King was executed on 30 January 1649
|the action of killing a monarch