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SS exam

What did Magellan do? He sailed all the way around the world
What did Columbus do? He was the first person who thought of sailing around the world to get to India, but he ended up in North America instead
What did De Gamma do? He was the first European to reach India by sea
What did Vespucci do? He was the person North and SouthAmerica were named after- "Amerigo"
What were the Starving Times? The men in Jamestown were running out of food because of the harsh weather and the lack of people doing labor
What was the Colombian Exchange? It was the exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between Europe and the Americas after Columbus made contact in the "New World"
What are cash crops? Crops that are high in demand so people make a lot of money on them
What is an indentured servant? People who don't have enough money to come to America, so they work for somewhen as payment. NOT slaves
What are the two physical features that separate the US from the rest of the world The Atlantic and Pacific Ocean
What is a loyalist? People in the colonies who are loyal to the King
What is transatlantic slave trade? The colonies ship goods to England, England sends manufactured good to Africa, and Africa sends slaves to the colonies
What colonies were founded for religious freedom? Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maryland, and Pennsylvania
Appalachian mountains were significant because..? They were a barrier between the 13colonies and they land they won from France. Behind the mountains are also dangerous Native American tribes
What were the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut? A set of laws to govern the colony. They were the first written constitution
What was the Mayflower Compact? A document written and signed by the people of Plymouth promising that they would write and follow a set of rules
What were the Intolerable Acts? Were punishment for the rebellions and the tea party. The acts banned town meetings, closed Boston harbor, and demanded the debt caused by the Boston tea party be paid. Mostly affected Massachusetts
What was the Great Migration? It was the movement of Puritans out of Europe and into other parts of the world, mostly North America
What was the Quartering Act An act that forced colonists to house British soldiers
What were effects of the Stamp Act? Taxed all papers in the colonies and led to the 1st Continental Congress
What was the Sugar Act? A tax placed on sugar
What was the Tea Act? Gave total control of tea in the colonies to a British company
What were the Navigation Acts? Made it so all imports and exports in the colonies had to be on British ships
The founding of Pennsylvania? Founded by William Penn for religious freedom for the Quakers
Founding of New York? Was the first Dutch colony before being taken for the Duke of York
Founding of Georgia? Was founded by Oglethorpe so that prisoners and poor people in England could get a fresh start
Who was Thomas Paine? The author of Common Sense, which called for separation from England. Also wrote The Crises which encouraged soldiers to keep fighting in the war
What was The Enlightenment? A period of scientific renovation
Significant people of The Enlightenment? Galileo, Ben Franklin, Newton, Locke,
What was the Great Awakening? A great religious movement in time that involved many great leaders including Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield
What was the Proclamation of 1763 and why did it upset colonists? Colonists weren’t allowed to venture past the Appalachian Mountains due to conflicts with Native Americans; this upset the colonists because they wanted to be allowed to settle wherever
What was the Boston Massacre? Colonists in Boston were yelling and throwing things at British troops, who open fired and killed five people
What was the Boston Tea Party Sons of liberty dumped millions of dollars worth of tea into boston harbor to protest against tea taxes.
"Taxation without representation" Britain was taxing the colonists while they didn't have any representation in Parliament
Key grievances against King George III Taxation without representation, limiting trade, didn't allow them to have their own form of government
Who was George Washington? The American general that led us through the Revolutionary War, founding father, and first president of the United States
Who was Benedict Arnold? An American Revolution leader who later betrayed them and joined the other side
Who was Patrick Henry? Anti-Federalist and founding father, famous quote "give me liberty or give me death"
Advantages of America in the war? Shorter supply lines, their own turf, strong leadership, help from France
Advantages of the British? Strongest navy in the world, more soldiers, more military experience
Battle of Lexington and Concord? The first military engagement of the Revolutionary War and was technically a British win but the Brits were ashamed of losing so many men
Battle of Saratoga? Considered the turning point of the revolution because they captured Burgoyne which convinced France to help them
Battle of Yorktown? Ended the revolution when the rebels (with lots of help from France) defeated Cornwallis
The Winter at Valley Forge? winter at valley forge was where many of washington’s soldiers died from lack of food, malaria, etc. or left because they didn’t think they’d win the war. Von steuben also joined the patriots here and trained them. (winter of 1777)
Treaty of Paris 1763? The treaty that ended the French and Indian War
Treaty of Paris 1783? Treaty where Britain acknowledged American independence and ended the Revolution.
Who was Lafayette? Wealthy young Frenchman who helped fund Washington's troops and later fought as a soldier under Washington
Who was Baron Von Steuben? Former Hessian that trained Washington’s troops at Valley Forge
Bernardo de Galvez? General from Spain that acted as patriot defense in the South.
Land Ordinance of 1785 Adopted by the United States congress to set up a standardized system whereby settlers could purchase title to farmland in the undeveloped west
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Provided a method for admitting new states to the union from territory, and listed a bill of rights guaranteed in the territory.
Northwest territory? Formed after the American Revolutionary War. The states involved are Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois,and Wisconsin.
3/5 Compromise? A compromise reached among delegates during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention. It outlined the process for states to count slaves as part of the population in order to determine representation and taxation for the federal government.
The Great Compromise? Saved the Constitutional Convention. It called for proportional representation in the House, and one representative per states in the Senate (this was later changed to two).
The Magna Carta? Made in 1215 was the first document the established that everyone (including the king) was subject to law.
Thomas Jefferson? A Founding Father and also the main author of the Declaration of Independence. He was the third president of The United States and was the governor of Virginia.
James Madison? A Founding Father and the fourth president of the United States. He was also known as the “Father of the Constitution,” for composing the first drafts.
John Adams? A Founding Father and the second president of the United States he was a leader of the American Revolution and was a delegate to the Continental Congress.
Effects of the Stamp Act? This lead to colonist saying the act was unconstitutional and a series of protests and violent mobs.
Constitutional Convention? Held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and started by Shay’s Rebellion. It was held to urge on a strong central government.
Limited Government? It means the government only has the power the people give it and must obey laws like any other citizen
Federalism? A system of government in which the states and the central government share powers
Checks and Balances? A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of one another to prevent the abuse of power
Separation of Powers? The division of basic government roles into branches
Republicanism? A form of government in which people elect representatives to create and enforce laws
Popular Sovereignty? The people rule
Individual Rights? Everyone has personal liberties and privileges that cannot be taken away
Virginia House of Burgesses? The first elected legislative body in colonial America.
John Hancock? The president of the Second Continental Congress and also the first (biggest) signer of the Declaration of Independence
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut? The first written constitution and set up limited self government for the colony
Minutemen? A member of a class of American militia who volunteered to be ready for service at a minutes notice
Mercantilism? The economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances
Writs of Assistance? Established to “enforce an order for the possession of lands” BUT soldiers used it to increase their power over the colonist
Tariffs? A tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports
Unalienable Rights? Rights that the government can’t take away
States' Rights? The rights and powers held by individual US states rather than by the federal government
Requirements to vote in the USA? 1. You have to be a US citizen. 2. You need to be a legal resident of our state. 3. You need to be at least 18 years olds by election day. 4. You need to be registered to vote by your state’s voter registration deadline.
Magna Carta date? 1215
English Bill of Rights? 1689
Jamestown established? 1607
Plymouth established? 1620
Starving time in Jamestown? Winter of 1609 to 1610
French and Indian War? 1754-1763
Declaration of Independence? July 4, 1763
Articles of Confederation? November 15, 1777
US Constitution? September 17, 1787
Economy of New England colonies? Relied mostly on shipping, fishing, and whaling
Economy of Middle colonies? Semi- agricultural and also did logging and shipbuilding
Economy of Southern colonies? More predominantly agricultural and they exported plants like tobacco, corn, and indigo
Strengths of the Articles of Confederation? Held the country together during the revolution, gave government the ability to declare war, make treaties and operate the post office
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? Government could not collect taxes, they had no control over foreign trade, could not force states to obey national laws, and all 13 states had to approve changes
Virginia Plan? Called for three branches and two house legislature with votes based on the population of the states
New Jersey Plan? Called for three branches and one house with every state getting one vote regardless of population
Federalists? Believed that the Constitution was fine and should be ratified the way it was. Some federalists were Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
Anti-Federalists? Believed the Constitution needed a Bill of Rights before being ratified. Some anti-federalists were George Mason and Patrick Henry
Key statements in Washington's farewell address? He said don’t form political parties because they would divide the country and to stay away from permanent alliances with foreign countries or they would get sucked into costly wars
Five pillars of the Free Enterprise system? Entrepreneur, Competition, Private Property, Profit Motives, and Consumer Choice
What was The Whiskey Rebellion? When people protested on the taxes that were being placed on Whiskey and Washington didn’t even flinch and instead sent 13,000 troops to enforce the taxes. No one rebelled again
What is Judicial Review? When the Supreme Court decides if a law is constitutional or not. This power was given during the case Marbury v. Madison, which is why that case is significant
What was the Nullification Crisis? A political crisis that happened during 1832-33 when South Carolina passed the Nullification Act saying it wouldn’t pay the tariffs placed by government. They threatened to secede so Andrew Jackson threatened to go down and hang them
What was Alexander Hamilton's plan for the economy? To have the federal government assume state’s debt, he would create a national bank, there would be protective tariffs, and the money from the tariffs would be used to make loans to start up small businesses
Why did Hamilton's plan create political parties? Jefferson and Madison opposed and said they had no right to make a bank. Hamilton said the constitution let them collect and borrow taxes. The arguing led to political parties
One way to amend the constitution? Both houses of congress have to adopt a proposed amendment by ⅔ vote. Then, ¾ of state legislatures must ratify the amendment
Another way to amend the constitution? If the amendment is proposed at a national convention by ⅔ of the states, then it has to be passed by ¾ of special state conventions
What is due process? Fair treatment through the normal judicial system, and it is guaranteed in the fifth amendment
A citizen's roles and responsibilities? obey federal, state, and local laws, to respect the rights, beliefs, and opinions of other citizens, pay income and local taxes honestly and on time, and defend the country if needed.
Created by: andreaaaa
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