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silt small particles of fertile soil
irrigation a system that supplies dry land with water through ditches, pipes, or streams
cuneiform a Sumerian writing system that used wedge-shaped marks made in soft clay
ziggurat a pyramid-shaped structure with a temple at the top
King Sargon Akkadian king who conquered the city-states of Sumer and then united Sumer and Akkad, forming the world's first empire.
King Hammurabi the King of Babylonia who created a code of law based on the idea of "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth."
unification the joining of separate parts into one (Pharaoh Narmer unified Upper and Lower Egypt)
pharaoh ruler of ancient Egypt
hieroglyphics Egyptian writing system made up of picture and sound symbols
Lower Egypt the area of Egypt that is in the north, at a "lower" elevation; it's 'downstream'
Upper Egypt the area of Egypt located in the south, at a higher elevation; it's "upstream'
Old Kingdom Egypt's first Pharaohs worked to build unity in the country; pyramids were built; economy was based on agriculture; the time from about 2700BC to 2200BC;
Middle Kingdom Egypt takes over Nubia, and are later defeated by the Hyksos; the time from about 2055 B.C. to 1650 B.C.
New Kingdom Many leaders such as Hatshepsut and Ramses II brought about changes for the empire; the time period from about 1550 B.C. to 1070 B.C.
Queen Hatshepsut First female ruler known in history. She restored the canal connecting The Nile River to the Red Sea and expanded the empire of Egypt through trade
King Narmer (Menes) unified kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt
social pyramid the ranking system of the different social classes within the Egyptian society
Nile River the main water source that made the Egyptian civilization possible by providing water and silt to the people who settled along its banks
scribe a person who copies or writes out documents
monotheism the belief in only one god; Judaism is the world's first monotheistic religion
Abraham the founder of Judaism
surplus an extra supply of something, such as crops, that is not needed immediately
civilization a culture that has developed systems of specialization, religion, education, and government
domesticate to train or adapt an animal (or a plant) for the advantage of humans
specialization the act of training for a particular job; when communities had a surplus of food, not everyone needed to farm, some people could specialize in doing other jobs
polytheism the belief in many gods; Most Mesopotamians and Egyptians were polytheistic
Created by: wtrms6ss



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