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Britain 1629 - 1640

Personal Rule and its failure

How did Charles secure his financial position without parliament? Traditional feudal dues, Monopolies granted to individuals with exclusive rights to import products and sell at extortionate prices
What years did Charles make peace with France and Spain? France in 1629, Spain in 1630
What was Charles main source of income? Ship money
Ship money A tax levied across the nation in 1635 initially intended for coastal counties. He generated £200,000 on average annually
Hampden's case In October 1637, John Hampden refused to pay Ship money challenging it's legality
What was the outcome of Hampden's trial? 7 out of 12 judges were out of favour with John Hampden. This alarmed public opinion that the King could raise taxation without parliamentary apporval.
Who was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633? William Laud, arminian and previously Bishop of London
Laudianism William Laud imposed the "beauty of holiness" by instructing the wearing of vestments, use of music, candles, and altar cloths.
How did Laud ensure people conformed to Laudianism? Visitations were held. Bishops who did not conform were brought to church courts as offenders
Who opposed Laudianism? radical Puritans particularly but they were a minority and there was a general passive acceptance of Laudianism
What did Charles impose in Scotland in 1637? A Laudian prayer book was imposed on Presbyterian Scotland. This caused widespread rioting.
How did the Scottish clergy and nobility react? In 1638 they signed the National Covenant, taking an Oath to resist changes to the Scottish Kirk
Presbyterian a church system governed by representative assemblies of elders.
Episcopalian government of a Church by bishops.
Scottish Kirk Church of Scotland
Which war took place and who won? In reaction to the National Covenant Charles declared war on Scotland (the Bishops War). The Scots were well organised and Charles had insufficient funds to pay for his campaign
Short Parliament In 1640 Charles called parliament to finance an army to defeat the Scots. This lasted three weeks as Charles refused MPs' demands to remove Laudianism and the removal of Feudal dues.
August 1640 Lack of finance left Charles vulnerable and on this date the Scots invaded northern England and occupied Newcastle.
What was the settlement agreed in the Bishops war? Charles would pay Scotland £850 a day until there was a settlement. In September 1640 the long parliament was summoned. They met in November.
Prerogative a right or privilege exclusive to a particular individual or class.
Created by: Haribro