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Britain 1625 - 1629

Charles 1st and Parliament

Who was the King between 1625 - 1629? Charles 1st
How many parliaments did Charles call to secure finance for his foreign policy? Three
Which theological movement in Christianity did Charles follow? Arminianism
What was the problem with Arminianism? It was dangerously close to Catholicism despite being a form of Protestantism. England was a Protestant country.
How did Charles show his support for Arminianism? Arminian Richard Montagu promoted to Royal Chaplain whilst Parliament was calling for his impeachment (1625) Allowing Duke of Buckingham, his favourite, to state his favour of arminianism (1626) Arminian William Laud appointed Bishop of London (1628)
Why did Charles call for Parliament in 1625 and what was the outcome? To fund an attack on the Spanish. Parliament accepted but the Cadiz raid was a disaster.
What did Charles do in 1627 regarding foreign policy and what was the outcome? Charles sent troops to help the Protestant French Huguenots but they were defeated at La Rochelle
What were the defeats at Cadiz and La Rochelle regarded as? National Humiliations
Who did Parliament blame for these defeats? The Duke of Buckingham who was overseeing foreign policy
What happened in 1628 to the Duke of Buckingham Charles resisted Parliaments request to impeach Buckingham and eventually the Duke was assassinated
How did Charles react to the death of Buckingham? The public rejoiced the Duke's death which elevated Charles hostility towards Parliament
How much did Charles demand for foreign policy in 1625? He requested £1 million in subsidies but parliament only funded two subsidies amounting to £140,000
What happened when Charles asked for more funds in 1626? Parliament refused leading for Charles to dissolve parliament in order to find his own method of raising finance.
What was the Forced Loan and what was the outcome of it's levy? A taxation that had not been agreed by parliament worth five subsidies. The loan was successful in raising money but it caused a significant amount of resentment.
What was the Five Knights case and it's outcome? Five knights were imprisoned for refusing to pay the Forced Loan. They were also denied bail. This was a clear indication of Charles absolutist intentions as he was imprisoning as he wished.
Why did Charles call for a third parliament in 1628? Charles demanded the immediate granting of taxes to continue the wars.
What was Parliament's reaction? They would only accept on their conditions. Parliament would then present the Petition of Right.
Petition of Right No taxation without consent of parliament No imprisonment without cause shown No billeting of soldiers or sailors upon householders against their will No martial law to punish ordinary offences by sailors or soldiers
What was Charles reaction to the Petition of Right? The King accepted the Petition on 7 June 1628 as he was desperate for parliamentary funds. He didn't formally accept the petition until The Commons insisted the correct response writing.
Three Resolutions In 2 March 1629 MPs drafted a petition denouncing arminianism and encouraged merchants to refuse to pay tonnage and poundage
10 March 1629 Charles dissolved parliament resolving to govern without them for 11 years known as Personal Rule
Divine right of Kings Asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God.
Factors in rising tensions between Parliament and Charles Religion- arminianism Finance- insufficient funds, forced loan Foreign Policy- Cadiz and La Rochelle
Created by: Haribro
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