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Revolutionary War

Kappel

TermDefinition
George Washington commanded the Continental Army took risky chances at Trenton and Princeton
Barry St. Legar Force included Iroquois chief, a british ally Was trying to defeat a small American force at Fort Stanwix -Was trick to thinking Arnold was coming with a large army, so retreated and didn’t ended up in Albany to divide and conquer
Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne Captured Fort Ticonderoga in July 1777 - Sent a raiding party into Vermont; were defeated -Met General Horatio Gates and Continental Army near Saratoga, New York -the continental army surrounded Burgoyne and surrendered forced to surrender
Bernardo de Galvez The governor of Louisiana, Spanish captures British strongholds of Natchez, Baton Rouge in the lower Mississippi Valley, Mobile, and Pensacola in West Florida; these victories prevented the British from attacking the United States from the southwest
John Paul Jones Privateer, 2 British warships were guarding many supply ships; Jones decides to attack the larger of the two Serapis 3.5 hour navy battle, British ship cracked and fell; British captain surrendered, this angered the British and inspired the Americans
Nathaneal Greene New officer in charge of the southern army He tried to avoid full-scale battles b/c British had strong and better firepowers
Francis Marion Marion send to destroy boats on the Santee River behind Camden; would cut off British communications with Charlestown and their supply line that led inland and North from Charles Town British went back to Charlestown w/h American prisoners,
Charles Cornwallis set up his base in Yorktown; located on a peninsula in Chesapeake Bay, it was easy to receive supplies from New York -French ships drove the British supplies ships back -Was bombarded in Yorktown with no way out surrendered his force of 8,000
Willam Howe Decide to not go through with the plan and instead move south to invade Pennsylvania and try to capture General Washington and the Continental Congress; didn’t find Washington, but did capture Pennsylvania
Hessians Hessians were mercenaries who were hired from German to fight for the British 9,000 arrived in New York with William Howe Christmas, 1776- Battle at Trenton, Washington surprised the Hessians, killed and captured more than 900 Hessians
Henry Clinton Led a British army in trapping American forces in Charlestown, South Carolina -5,000 defenders surrendered and lost almost their entire army WORST AMERICAN DEFEAT OF THE WAR
George Rogers Clark captured Kaskaskia, was determined to retake Fort sackville, He surprised Hamilton because rivers and woods were overflowing He pretended to have a large force, and scare them by executing some Native Americans allies in plain view, Hamilton gave up
Baron von Stuben Turned the inexperience Americans into a skilled fighting force taught them how to move in lines, and columns taught them how to handle weapons properly The army adopted Von Steuben's methods known for his shrinking high voice
Baron De Kalb went to Camden, to challenge British led by Cornwallis -On their way, they met Marion; He gave details ab South Carolina’s coastal swampland Americans and British ran into each other outside of Camden, Kalb was the only one fighting
Marquis de Lafayette 19-year-old French nobleman who volunteered to help serve with Washington Wanted a military career and believed in American cause Given the command of a army division Convinced French king to send a 6,000 soldiers to America
Jean Rochambeau Led with George Washington, french army, and Washington’s army Bombarded Yorktown with Washington, surrendering them with cannon fires and no way out
Horatio Gates -Led army near Saratoga; built fortifications with help from Polish engineer Tadeusz Kosciuszko in command of new southern army -Americans ran into British outside of Camden; they were out of supplies and half-starved; Miltia and Gates fled- FIRED
Foreign Aid The victory at Saratoga caused the Europeans to start believing the Americans could win this war and they decide to help them by, giving them troops, money, supplies, and the French navy; Spain joins a year later, troops and supplies
War Front Where the fighting occurs Spanish helped stretched the war front, by attacking in many different locations which made the British spread their military resources over many fronts
Guerilla Warfare Small bands of fighters who weaken the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks; Marion used them to cut supplies from British
Mercenaries professional soldiers hired to fight for a foreign country. British need to soldiers, since enlistments were low, Britain hired mercenaries to fight for them
Privateers a privately owned ship that a wartime governor gives permission to attack an enemy’s merchant ships; Americans use privateers to attack British Merchant ships; this disrupt trade causing British merchants to call he war to end
Rendevzous a meeting at a certain time and place; William Howe, Johnny Burgoyne, and St. Legar were supposed to meet in Albany to divide and conquer
Strategy An overall plan of action; British strategy was to Divide and Conquer
Turning Point When in war, the side that was losing starts winning; the turning point for the revolutionary war was at the battle of Saratoga, the Americans start getting some victories
Ally A country that agrees to help another country achieve a common goal since the Americans knew France was one of Britain’s long-time enemy, they turned to them for help. Benjamin Franklin persuade to be one of United States Allies
Desert to illegally leave without finishing serving time; some soldiers left when at Valley Forge because of how difficult it was
Loyalist American colonists who stayed loyal to Britain; some worked for British Government or were clergy in the Church of England
Patriot colonists who believed American as an independent nation Virginia has the highest number of patriots
Interior inland; Americans strategy was to let the British chase them around the interior, which wore them out
Pacifist a person who believe war and violence is unjust; Nathaniel Greene was a pacifist but he believed in the armed struggles against the British
How was American divided? 20-30 % Loyalist 40-45% Patriots The rest were neutrals African Americans Fought on both sides
Created by: lyanna89076