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TX History Corbett

TX Hist Fall Final

grasslands with scattered trees savanna
average weather in a place over the last twenty or thirty years climate
square league of land or 4, 428 acres sitio
move from place to place nomadic
natural vegetation is grass prairie
farming; preparing soil for crops agriculture
measures 3 miles in distance league
stay in one place settled
customs, ideals, beliefs of the people culture
area with places that share the same characteristics region
describes geography of Texas including four natural regions, agriculture, points of interest Natural Texas
includes Prehistoric cultures; Native Americans in Texas; Spanish explorers Age of Contact
establishment and purpose of the missions; converting of the Native Americans and their culture; closing of the mission/presidio system; fillibusters; early approval of colonization of American Anglos Spanish Colonial
empresario system and the arrival of American Anglos into Tejas (Texas); Mexican Constitution of 1825; State Colonization Laws 1824; conflicts of cultural differences; Mier y Terran's report; Decree of April 6, 1830; early skirmishes Anglos/Mexican gov. Mexican National
imprisonment of SFA; Santa Anna's dictatorship; declaration of war through Battle of San Jacinto Texas Revolution
1st Flag of Texas Spain 1519-1821
2nd Flag of Texas France 1685-1690
3rd Flag of Texas Mexico 1821-1836
At the end of what battle did the Texian volunteers gain control of San Antonio including the Alamo and the Camino Real or the Royal Highway? What was the date? Battle of San Antonio on Dec. 10, 1835
When was the Siege of the Alamo? Feb 23- March 6, 1836
When was the Battle of the Alamo? Who were the survivors of the Alamo? March 6, 1836; women, children, and slaves to be witnesses and spread the word to the colonies
What was Sam Houston's position in the ad interim government? Commander of the Army of the Republic of Texas
Who uses a tactical retreat to gain advantage to the last battle of the Texas Revolution? Was he successful? Sam Houston Yes, he organized the troops and prepared for the Battle of San Jacinto
On April 21, 1836, the Texans made battle cries of "Remember the Alamo" and "Remember Goliad" as they made a surprise attack on the Mexican soldiers of San Jacinto. Who was the commander of the volunteers? Why is April 21st San Jacinto Day? Sam Houston won the battle and got independence from Mexico
On the plains of San Jacinto the Texan volunteers controlled the Harrisburg-Lynchburg Road, the New Washington-Lynchburg Road and the ferry, what geographical features did Santa Anna and General Cos need to cross to make an escape? Marsh and a lake
Where was the Convention of 1836 held? Washington-on-the-Brazos
When did the Convention of 1836 begin and end (month, day, year)? March 1, 1836 through March 17, 1836
List four natural regions of Texas A. Gulf Coastal Plains B. North Central Plains C. Great Plains D. Mountains and Basins
Which region has the most land, most major cities with abundant water (rivers); warm summers and is densely (highly) populated? Gulf Coastal Plains
Which region has an arid (driest) climate with very little vegetation? Mountains and Basins
Which region has the Balcones Escarpment and the Caprock Escarpment as part of its boundaries? North Central Plains
Which region receives the most amount of rain to support the forests including area of the Piney Woods? Gulf Coastal Plains
Which region would you find Big Bend National Park and the Davis Mountains? Mountains and Basins
Which region is along the coast, has many islands and part of the area is at sea level? Gulf Coastal Plains
Which region has the least amount of land, people, or major cities? Mountains and Basins
Which region includes the Panhandle to the north and the Rio Grande to the south? Great Plains
Which region includes Abilene, Wichita Falls, and Fort Worth? North Central Plains
Which region has higher elevations with little water resources or major roads? Mountains and Basins
What is the name of the place that has cave drawings from prehistoric cultures and was explored by Coronado? Palo Duro Canyon
This river is in southwest Texas and is the border Mexico and the United States Rio Grande
This river is in east Texas and is the border between Texas and Louisiana Sabine River
This river is in northeast Texas and is the border between Texas and Oklahoma and Arkansas? Red River
Purpose of a Spanish mission A. God- convert the Native Americans to the Roman Catholic Church B. Glory- control the land and its people to be powerful C. Gold- still looking for cities of gold Most important- keep France out of Texas!
Most famous mission San Antonio de Valero- "The Alamo"
Give 3 examples of Spanish influence in Texas today? A. City/river names B. Religion/language C. Architecture of some buildings and design of some cities
What river did the filibusters, including the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition cross to get into Texas from Neutral Ground in the early 1800s? Sabine River
San Antonio de Bexar was built in the 18th century originally as a presidio with the Villa San Fernando de Bexar nearby. The presidio and villa were established because of San Antonio de Valero and four other Spanish missions. What is the name today? San Antonio
What is the name of the friar who went to east Texas with Alonzo de Leon in 1690 to establish mission San Francisco de los Tejas and had many problems with Hassinai (part of the Caddos); buried bells before the mission burned? Fray Massanet
Which three tribes were in the Southeastern Culture? One was known for the "trot line" and one was known for the corn grinder. Two of them lived in round houses and grew vegetables and one was nomadic and lived in lean-to huts Caddo; Wichita, Atakapa or Atakapan
Southeastern Culture's roaming area was NE Texas along Red. R., Piney Woods along Louisiana and Sabine River to Galveston Bay
Which two tribes were nomadic, sometimes traveled by dugout canoes and ate a lot of seafood? These tribes belonged to the Western Gulf Culture Karankawa and Coahuiltecan
Western Gulf Culture's roaming area Along the Gulf Coast from Galveston Bay to tip of south Texas
Which four tribes were in the Plains Culture? Three of the tribes were nomadic while one got pushed off the plains and became a settled tribe. Comanche; Apache; Kiowa; Tonkawa
Plain's Culture roaming area was Panhandle to Central Texas near Austin
What were the names of the two tribes had shelter of adobe and learned to use irrigation to water their crops? These tribes belonged to the Puebloan Culture Concho/Tigua; Jumano
Puebloan Culture's roaming area was West Texas along the Rio Grande
What are the names of the three tribes use tipis for shelter, had the use of the horse beginning 1600s, and depended on the buffalo? Apacha; Comanche; Kiowa
Which tribe was the most civilized, had the best diet of fish and vegetables, good tradesman, and used the term "Tay-sas" meaning "friends"? Cado
Which tribe has extra long bows, body piercings, dugout canoes, and used alligator grease for bug repellant? Karankawa
Which explorer was shipwrecked on Galveston Island, held captive for seven years by Karankawa/Atakapan; had to walk everywhere; wrote a book about land and animals in Texas especially the large herds of buffalo Cabeza de Vaca
Which explorer was the first to map the coastline of Texas and planted the Spanish flag to claim the area of New Spain? Alonzo Pineda
What is the name of the battle between the Republican army of the north and the Spanish army- also known as the bloodiest battle on Texas soil? Who was the young soldier in the Spanish Army that first saw the tactic of "no prisoners, no mercy?" Battle of Medina Santa Anna
Which explorer traveled west from area known as Florida to look for gold but found "black gold" crude oil? Luis Moscoso
Which explorer accidentally passed up the Mississippi River and land near Garcita's Creek then built Fort St. Louis to claim the land for France? La Salle
Corn and rice are examples of crops grown in SE Texas on the plains near the Gulf Coast because of the subtropical climate. What is the number one crash crop that grows well in this area? cotton
The primary writer of the Texas Declaration of Independent was a lawyer from Tennessee and during the Texas Revolution he was one of the diplomats that went to the USA to get money, supplies, and volunteers. Who was he? George C. Childress
Originally, the Alamo was built as a mission. Why did this make it harder for the Texians to defend? Plaza- wide open spaces
What famous Texas document was written on March 2, 1836? What did the delegates base this document on? Republic of Texas Declaration of Independence- United States
How long did the Battle of San Jacinto last? 18 minutes
Who famously wrote, "Victory or Death" in a letter written during the siege of the Alamo? What does this imply? William B. Travis- win the battle or die as a hero trying to win
Stephen F. Austin went to Mexico in late 1833 and was arrested in Mexico in 1834? Why (clue: separate from Coahuila)? He had proposals for Santa Anna from the Convention of 1833 and wrote a letter to the colonists in Tejas while in Mexico City which included the importance for Tejas to be a separate state from Coahuila
Where were Fannin and most of his 300 Texans volunteers massacred on the orders of Santa Anna? In a field near La Bahia in the city of Goliad
How did the Texas colonists feel about the Mexican Constitution of 1824? Why? Colonists like it and gave them basic rights
Why did Stephen F. Austin go to Mexico City in 1821? Moses Austin, SFA's dad, had gotten a land grant from Spain but he died before bringing in the families. He needed to get the land grant approved from Mexican government then transferred into his name.
What did Mier y Teran's report say about the Anglo population north of the Rio Grande? What did this report cause to be written? Anglos north of the Rio Grande outnumbered the Native Mexican citizens 10:1. Decree of April 6, 1830
What was the original purpose for the Spanish then Mexican government to allow the Anglos to colonize north of the Rio Grande? To be the buffer between citizens south of the Rio Grande and the aggressive Native Americans- especially the Comanche and Apache
Why did Anglo settlers want to come to Mexico from the United States? In what part of of Tejas did the most Anglo settlers live? To buy cheap land- 1/10 price in USA and could buy with credit. There was an economic depression after War 1812. Most settled in southeast Texas
Give 4 cultural differences between the American Anglos and the Native Americans when the Anglos settled in Tejas (Texas). A. No freedom of religion B. Guilty until proven innocent C. No freedom of the press, speech, assembly, petition, or protest D. No representation or voice in governments or laws
Moses Austin then SF Austin had to consider water sources, flat land, and fertile soil when considering an area for colonization. What area of Texas was chose for most of the empresario land grants? Most settlers first settled east of Guadalupe River to Trinity River/Galveston Bay along the coast
What kept the native Mexican citizens from wanting to colonize Texas north of the Rio Grande? Aggressive Native Americans- mostly Apaches and Comanches. This is why Spain then Mexico agreed to Anglo settlers north of Rio Grande
Give 3 ways early Native Americans had adapted or blended their culture with the Spanish/Mexican then American (Anglo) culture. A. Religion and customs B. Agriculture- "American Triad" or "three sisters"- corn, beans, squash all planed in same mound and taught settlers C. Use of natural resources and climate to make shelter, clothing, and tools
What was the national religion of Spain and then Mexico during early colonization? Roman Catholic Church
What is the name of the treaty between Spain and the United States in which Spain gave the colony of Florida to the U.S. and both sides agreed to establish the Sabine River as the border between Spain and the United States? Adams- Onis Treaty of 1819
What led to the reduction of empresario contracts after 1829? Why? Decree of April 6, 1830
Give five changes settlers were affected by with the decree of 1830. (They didn't like it because they thought it broke the Constitution of 1824 and this law led to the Texas Revolution) A. No more empresario contracts. B. No more US immigration C. Increased import taxes on goods from United States D. More Mexican soldiers E. Free land and $$$ to Europeans and Native Mexican citizens willing to move north of the Rio Grande.
Created by: sgants
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