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Am Gvt Ch.12-15

American Government Review Ch. 12-15

TermDefinition
Egalitarianism doctrine of equality that ignores differences in social status, wealth, and privilege
Interest Group group of like-minded individuals who band together to influence public policy, public opinion, or governmental officials
Public Interest Group citizen organization that advocates issues of public good, such as protection of the environment
Think Tank group of individuals who conduct research in a particular subject or a particular area of public policy
Public Goods (collective goods) goods like clean water, public, roads, community libraries- that are used or consumed by all people in society
Inside Lobbying appealing directly to lawmakers and legislative staff either in meetings, by providing research and information, or by testifying at committee hearings
14th amendment (1868) states cannot abridge an individual's civil liberties
Voting Rights Act federal statute that effectively attacked literacy tests and other techniques used to prevent African Americans from voting
Motor Voter Law federal law passed in 1993 requiring states to offer citizens the opportunity to register to vote in many states offices, including motor vehicle offices; done to increase voting participation
Electoral Behavior any activity broadly linked to the outcome of a political campaign, such as voting, making phone calls, sending texts, and even talking with friends and neighbors about the upcoming election.
Platform the set of issues, principles, and goals that a party supports
Democratic Republicans first American political party formed by believer's in states' rights' and followers of Thomas Jefferson
Federalist Party founded by Alexander Hamilton; members believed in a strong centralized government
Corrupt Bargain of 1824 alleged secret agreement in election of 1724 that led House of Reps to select John Quincy Adams
Candidate-Centered Era a period when candidates began to portray themselves as independent from party politics even tough they often ran under a party banner
National Nominating Convention events that are held in summer of presidential election years where party delegates, selected thru primaries and caucuses, pick their party's presidential nominees
Binding Primaries system where delegates selected thru primaries and caucuses are bound to support the candidate they originally said they would support; they are not allowed to switch convention vote
Electoral College procedure for selecting President and Vice President defined in Constitution; whereby voters in each state choose electors to attend a gathering where electors make final decision
12th amendment (1804) required a separate vote tally in the electoral college for President and Vice President; change made running on a party ticket much easier
Unit Rule practices employed by 48 states of awarding all of a state's electoral college votes to candidate who receives greatest number of popular votes in that states; in these states, it's all or nothing
Buckley v. Valeo most significant Supreme Court case on campaign finance in American history. The court ruled that spending money was akin to speech, and therefore protected by the First Amendment.
Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) law designed to limit the amount of money contributed to campaigns for Congress and the presidency and to broaden donation reporting requirements
Super PAC's ALLOWED (independent expenditure-only committees) Allowed to raise unlimited sums from unlimited sources, including corporations, unions & other groups, & wealthy individuals
Focusing Events moments that capture attention and highlight the existence of a problem
Gross Domestic Product value of all goods and services produced by a nation
Balance of Trade payroll taxes the net difference between a nation's imports and exports
Social Security Trust Fund fund to pay for future social security benefits, supposedly being built thru today's payroll taxes
Income Security notion that government should establish programs that provide a safety net for society's poorest members
ISIS islamic state in Iraq and Syria; controls a wide swath of territory in Syria and Iraq and is challenging both the Russian-backed Syrian government of Basher al-Assad and the US-backed Iraqi government
Neoconservatives people who believe that the US has a special role in world politics; they advocate the unilateral use of force and the pursuit of a value based foreign policy
Neoliberals people who believe that cooperation is possible thru the creation and management of international institutions, organizations, and regimes
North Atlantic Organization (NATO) a military alliance set up by US and its western European allies initially to contain the expansion of the former Soviet Union
Vietnam Syndrome belief attributed to the American experience in Vietnam that the public will not support the use of military force if it results in significant American casualties
Powell Doctrine a view that cautions against the use of military forces especially where public opinion support is limited, but once the decision to use force has been made, military power should be applied quickly and decisively
Jihadists participants in a crusade or holy war especially in defense of Islam
Outside Lobbying activities directed at the general public to raise awareness and interest and to pressure officials
Super PAC's (independent expenditure-only committees) NOT ALLOWED NOT allowed to coordinate campaign activities & spending with candidates they're trying to help
Created by: moo_30