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Unit Five

TermDefinition
Spoils system The practice of winning candidates' rewarding their supporters with government jobs
Indian Removal Act A law, enacted in 1830, that forced Native American people east of the Mississippi to move to lands in the West
Worcester v. Georgia A case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state
Trail of Tears The marches in which the Cherokee people were forcibly removed from Georgia to the Indian Territory in 1838-1840, with thousands of the Cherokee dying on the way
Andrew Jackson An American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837
Tariff of Abominations John C. Calhoun's name for an 1828 tariff increase that seemed to Southerners to being enriching the North at their expense
Bank War The political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the Second Bank of the United States (BUS) during the presidency of Andrew Jackson (1829–1837)
Panic of 1837 A U.S. financial crisis in which banks closed and the credit system collapsed, resulting in many bankruptcies and high unemployment
Whig Party The political part formed in 1834 to oppose the policies of Andrew Jackson
Abolition Movement to end slavery
David Walker An African-American abolitionist, writer, and anti-slavery activist----exerted a radicalizing influence on the abolitionist movements of his day and inspired future black leaders and activists
William Lloyd Garrison American journalistic crusader who published a newspaper, The Liberator (1831–65), and helped lead the successful abolitionist campaign against slavery in the United States
The Liberator an American abolitionist newspaper founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Isaac Knapp----Religious rather than political, it appealed to the moral conscience of its readers, urging them to demand immediate freeing of the slaves
Frederick Douglass A United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North
The North Star A nineteenth-century anti-slavery newspaper published from the Talman Building in Rochester, New York by abolitionist Frederick Douglass
Uncle Tom's Cabin A best-selling novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe, published in 1852, that portrayed slavery as a great moral evil
Compromise of 1850 A series of congressional measures intended to settle the major disagreement between free states and slave states
Underground Railroad A system of routes along which runaway slaves were helped to escape to Canada or to safe areas in the free states
Harriet Tubman an American abolitionist and political activist. ... During the Civil War, she served as an armed scout and spy for the United States Army
The Alamo A mission and fort in San Antonio, Texas, where Mexican forces massacred rebellious Texans in 1836
Temperance movement An organized effort to prevent the drinking of alcoholic beverages
Elizabeth Cady Stanton An American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement
Sufferage The right to vote
Manifest destiny The 19th-century belief that the United States would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory
Oregon Trail A route from INdependence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Orgeon, used by pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory
Santa Fe Trail A route from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe,, New Mexico, used by traders in the early and mid-1800s
Dred Scott Case A controversial ruling made by the Supreme Court in 1857, shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War
Joseph Smith A religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830
Bleeding Kansas A name applied to the Kansas Territory in the years before the Civil War, when the territory was a battleground between proslavery and antislavery forces
Popular Sovereignty A system in which gthe residents vote to decide an issue
Stephen F. Austin "Father of Texas" An American empresario ----- the founder of Texas, he led the second, and ultimately, the successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States to the region in 1825
Kansas-Nebraska Act A law, enacted in 1854, that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and gave their residents the right to decide whether to allow slavery
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna A Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then for Mexican
Republic of Texas The nation established in 1836 when Amerian settlers in the Mexican province of Tejas declared and fought for their independence, also commonly knwn at the time as the "Lone Star Republic"
Theory of State's Rights The rights or powers retained by the regional governments of a federal union under the provisions of a federal constitution
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The 1848 treaty ending the U.S. war with Mexico, in which Mexico ceded California and New Mexico to the United States
Gadsden Purchase An 1853 purchase by the United States by land from Mexico, establishing the present U.S.-Mexico boundary
Gold rush A movement of many people to a region in which gold has been discovered
Forty-niners One of the people who migrated to California in search of riches after gold was discovered there in 1848
John Brown An American abolitionist who believed in and advocated armed insurrection as the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States
Created by: sarah23me1