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Chapter 8

Messier US II

The Muckrakers -Among the first people to articulate progressive ideas they were a group of crusading journalists who investigated social conditions and political corruption. -Lincoln Steffens, Jacob Riis, Ida Tarbell, John Spargo
Ida Tarbell -Muckraker -Another journalist who exposed the ruthless tactics of the era’s industrialists (John Rockefeller)
Commission Plan divided the government into several departments each under the control of an expert
Referendum Allowed citizens to approve or reject a piece of legislation passed by government.
17th Amendment -1913 -Direct election of Senators
Initiative Gave people the power to directly place an issue on the ballot.
Why was Wisconsin known as the Laboratory for Democracy? Support for Direct Primaries: all party members could vote for a candidate to run in the general election.
19th Amendment –The right to vote shall not be abridged on account of sex. (Women get to vote)
Temperance Movement –Promoted the practice of never drinking alcohol.
1902 Coal Miners Strike -United Mine Workers a strike of about 150,000 miners -capable of sparking a coal shortage -Roosevelt tried to use arbitration but mine owners refused he threatened to order the army to run the mines and forced the mine owners to arbitration
Hepburn Act Strengthen Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) / 1906
Meat Inspection Act 1906 Federal Inspection Of Meat through Interstate Commerce Agriculture Department - Set cleanliness standards
Children's Bureau 1912 -Investigated Child Labor
Socialism/Socialist Beliefs -the idea that the government should own and operate industry for the community -wanted govt to buy large companies
Woodrow Wilson -firm progressive -direct primary -New Freedom -believed lowering tariffs would benefit American consumers & manufacturers -New Nationalism
New Freedom monopolies should be destroyed not regulated
Underwood Tariff -reduced the average tariff on imported goods to about 30% of the value of the goods, or about one half the tariff of the 1890s -an income tax or direct tax on the earnings of individuals -1913 Wilson signed it into law
Clayton Antitrust Act -1914 -Union’s Magna Carta = -Unions the right to exist
Keating-Owens Child Labor Act -Prohibited the employment of children under the age of 14 -1918: unconstitutional
Progressives -believed that government could be used as a tool for change -Bull Moose Party
Direct Primaries all party members could vote for a candidate to run in the general election.
Progressive Reforms -commission plan: divide city gov into departments, each under expert commissioner -council-manager system: hire city manager to run city instead of mayor -experts major role in managing city -make political system democratic & responsive to citizens
3 Types of Government -Mayor-Council Form -Commission Form -Council-Manager Form Use page 295 of text
Senator Election Process -each state to elect two senators -Politicians and businesses influenced elections -Some senators repaid supporters with contracts & jobs -Progressives called for direct election of senators by the state’s voters -17th Amendment to the Constitution.
Prohibition laws banning the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcohol
Arbitration a settlement negotiated by an outside party
"The Jungle" by Upton Sinclair 1906 -observations of the slaughterhouses of Chicago, -appalling descriptions of conditions in the meatpacking industry: -made consumers ill—and angry -Meat Inspection Act -The Pure Food and Drug Act
Northern Securities v. United States -1904 -In a 5-4 decision, the Court concluded that the commerce clause allows the federal government to regulate the ownership of companies
Gifford Pinchot -head the United States Forest Service established in 1905 “The natural resources,” Pinchot said, “must be developed and preserved for the benefit of the many and not merely for the profit of a few.”
Richard A. Ballinger -conservative corporate lawyer -tried to make nearly a million acres of public forests and mineral reserves available for private development
New Nationalism legislation that protects women & children in work force & workers’ compensation for those injured on the job
New Freedom monopolies should be destroyed not regulated
Workers' Compensation Pay for those who have been injured while working
Sixteenth Amendment -1913 -gave the federal government the power to tax the income of individuals directly
Created by: ssullivan2