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Biochemistry Vocabul

TermDefinition
Organic compound any of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of carbon are covalently linked to atoms of other elements, most commonly hydrogen, oxygen, or nitrogen.
Inorganic compound An inorganic compound is any compound that lacks a carbon atom, for lack of a more in-depth definition.
Carbohydrate(s) any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose.
Protein(s)
Lipid(s) composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organismsat are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
Enzyme(s) a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
Amino acid(s) a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.
Simple sugars Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose.
Disaccharide any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues
Ribonucleic acid RNA. Like DNA, RNA (ribonucleic acid) is essential for all known forms of life
Deoxyribonucleic acid deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
Polysaccharide
Glycogen a substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaca carbohydrate (e.g., starch, cellulose, or glycogen) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded togethercharide that forms glucose on hydrolysis.
Peptide a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain, the carboxyl group of each acid being joined to the amino group of the next by a bond of the type -OC-NH-.
Catalyst a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.
Denature take away or alter the natural qualities of. "empty verbalisms and denatured ceremonies" make (alcohol) unfit for drinking by the addition of toxic or foul-tasting substances
Hydrolysis the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
Dehydration synthesis Dehydration synthesis is the process of joining two molecules, or compounds, together following the removal of water.
Substrate(s) a substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs, in particular. the surface or material on or from which an organism lives, grows, or obtains its nourishment. the substance on which an enzyme acts
Nucleotide(s) a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Fatty acids and glycerol In a fat molecule, the fatty acids are attached to each of the three carbons of the glycerol molecule with an ester bond through the oxygen atom.
Dipeptide a peptide composed of two amino-acid residues
Coenzyme a nonprotein compound that is necessary for the functioning of an enzyme.
Macromolecules a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer
Created by: 1007542