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Unit Four

Judiciary Act of 1789 A law that increased he number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists
Cabinet The group of department heads who serve as the president's chief advisers
Bank of the United States Either of the two national banks, funded by the federal government and private investors, established by Congress, the first in 1791 and the second in 1816
Whiskey Rebellion A tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 and ending in 1794 during the presidency of George Washington, ultimately under the command of American Revolutionary war veteran Major James McFarlane
Excise tax A tax on the production, sale, or consumption of goods produced within a country
Two-party system A political system dominated by two major parties
Federalists Supporters of the Constitution and a strong national government
Democratic-Republicans Political party known for its support of strong state governments, founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1792 in opposition to the Federalist Party
Alien and Sedition Acts A series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants to the United States
XYZ Affair A 1797 incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomas
Benjamin Banneker A free African American almanac author, surveyor, naturalist, and farmer; Born in Baltimore County, Maryland, to a free African American woman and a former slave, Banneker had little formal education and was largely self-taught
John Marshall An American politician who served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835
Marbury v. Madison An 1803 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to abolish legislative acts by declaring them unconstitutional; this power came to be known as judicial review
Midnight judge One of the judges appointed by John Adams in the last hours of his administration
Judicial review The Supreme Court's power to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
Cumberland Gap A pass through the Cumberland Mountains region of the Appalachian Mountains at the junction of the U.S. states of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia
Louisiana Purchase The 1803 purchase by the United States of France's Louisiana Territory---texting from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains---for $15 million
Lewis and Clark expedition An expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States; led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark; traveled from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River from 1803 to 1806. Example of: expedition
Sacajawea A Lemhi Shoshone woman who is known for her help to the Lewis and Clark Expedition in achieving their chartered mission objectives by exploring the Louisiana Territory
Impressment The forcible seizure of men for military service
Chesapeake Incident A naval engagement that occurred off the coast of Norfolk between the British warship HMS Leopard and the American frigate USS Chesapeake ---- Leopard pursued, attacked, and boarded the American frigate, looking for deserters from the Royal Navy
Embargo A government ban on trade with one or more other nations
War Hawk One of the members of Congress who favored war with Britain in the early years of the 19th century
Tecumseh An American Indian chief of the Shawnee tribe---He attempted to unite western Indian tribes against the White people, but was defeated at Tippecanoe (1811)---He was killed while fighting for the British in the War of 1812
Treaty of Ghent The 1814 treaty that ended the War of 1812
Rush-Bagot agreement A treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom limiting naval armaments on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, following the War of 1812
Adams-Onis Treaty An 1819 agreement in which Spain gave over control of the territory of Florida to the United States
Monroe Doctrine A policy of U.S. opposition to any European interference in he affairs of the Western Hemisphere, announced by President Monroe in 1823
McCulloch v. Maryland An 1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that Maryland had no right to tax the Bank of the United States, thereby strengthening the power of the federal government's control over the economy
Gibbons v. Ogden A landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce, granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, encompassed the power to regulate navigation
12th Amendment Provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President----It replaced the procedure provided in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, by which the Electoral College originally functioned
Tariff of 1816 A protective tariff designed to aid American industries
Industrial Revolution The charge in social and economic organization that resulted from the replacement o hand tools with machines and from the development of large-scale industrial production
National Road A federally funded road begun in 1811 and by 1838 extending from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois
Clermont The first steamboat in public service (1807), designed by American engineer Robert Fulton and built in New York City by Charles Brown with the financial backing of Robert Livingston
Erie Canal A 363-mile-long artificial waterway connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie, built between 1817 and 1825
American System A pre-Civil War set of measures designed to unify the nation and strengthen its economy by means of protective tariffs, a national bank, and such internal improvements as the development of a transportation system
Cotton gin A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
Missouri Compromise A series of agreements passes by Congress in 1820-1821 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states
2nd Great Awakening A 19-century religious movement in which individual responsibility for seeking salvation way emphasized, along with the need for personal and social improvement
Created by: sarah23me1