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The Ottomans Empire

Background A small Turkish state occupied land between the Byzantine Empire and that of the Muslims. Turks were very loyal to their own group. Eventually would become an immense empire stretching across three continents.
Turks Move into Byzantium Ghazis- Warriors for Islam. Strict Islamic Code of Conduct. Raided territories of people who lived on the frontiers of the Byzantine Empire.
Osman Most successful Ghazi. People in the West called him Othman, followers were called Ottomans. Built a small Muslim state in Anatolia between 1300 and 1326.
Ottoman’s Military Success Largely based on gunpowder. Among the first to use cannons. Musket carrying soldiers vs. archers on horseback.
Orkhon I Osman’s son. Declared himself Sultan. Adrianople was captured in 1361; second most important city of the Byzantine Empire.
Ottoman’s Success Wise to the people they conquered. Often improved the life of peasants. Muslims were required to serve in army, non-Muslims paid a tax.
Timur the Lame Briefly interrupted expansion. Crushed the Ottoman forces at the Battle of Ankara in 1402. This defeat halted the expansion.
Timur and China Timur turned his attention to China. War broke out among the four sons of the Ottoman sultan. Mehmed I won, and took the throne.
Murad II Mehmed I’s son. Defeated Venetians, invaded Hungary, overcame and Italian Army in the Balkans. First of four powerful sultans who led the Empire through 1566.
Mehmed II Took power in 1451 when Constantinople shrunk from 1 million to 50,000. Became to be known as Mehmed the Conqueror. Rebuilt the city and allowed new citizens of many religions including Jews, Muslims, Christians, Turks, and non-Turks.