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Unit 8 Vocabulary

World War II Allied powers (Britain, France, USSR, China) vs. Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) ; began in Europe in 1939, US joined in 1941
Lend-Lease Act USA could lend military equipment and supplies to any nation the president said was vital to the defense of the United States. Over $50 Billion sent to Allies.
Pearl Harbor US navy base in Hawaii Japanese launched a surprise attack on Dec. 7, 1941; Over 2,400 Americans killed US enters WWII after
Pacific Theater US fighting against Axis powers in Pacific (Japan) using Island Hopping strategy
Battle of Midway USA destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and lost 1 - major morale boost for USA - American victory regarded as most important naval battle in Pacific
Manhattan Project code name for development of atomic bombs - successful test at Los Alamos New Mexico - began w/ fear of German development - leads to Cold War arms race with USSR after WWII
Albert Einstein German born physicist who fled to the US from Europe and informed the president Germany was developing atomic weapons; led to Manhattan project
Atomic Bombs first nuclear weapons developed by US during World War II; only nuclear weapons ever used in warfare when US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki to force Japan to surrender
Island Hopping Allied strategy to preserve resources and work way towards main islands of Japan
European Theater US battles against Axis powers in Europe (Germany & Italy)
D-Day Allied victory that began advance to reclaim Europe - Operation Overlord -storm beach at Normandy, France - largest seaborne invasion in history - 156,000 men in 6,939 boats crossed English Channel.
Battle of Berlin USSR troops overtook German capital - Soviets lost 81,116 men - Germans lost 458,080 - Hitler commits suicide
Rationing Items such as sugar, meat, butter, canned vegetables, fruits, and gasoline required stamps to limit American consumption
Wartime Conversation privately owned companies produced materials to support war; Ford made planes and tanks
A. Philip Randolph black civil rights leader; met with FDR to encourage legislation ending discrimination and to integrate military; started March on Washington movement
Integration the process of bringing together people of different races, religions, and social classes; opposite of segregation
Japanese Internment 110,000 Japanese-Americans were removed from California, Oregon, and Washington via executive order & forced into camps for the duration of the war; Japanese lost businesses, houses, farms, etc.
Cold War tension and arms race between USA and USSR from 1945-1991; no actual fighting between these two countries happened
Containment policy of keeping communism contained within its current borders; prohibit spread of communism
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) created for mutual defense of Western Europe amid fears of atomic armed USSR
Truman Doctrine USA foreign policy; United States’ belief that communism would infiltrate those areas of Europe that were left weakened by the effects of World War II.
Marshall Plan plan to combat negative economic impacts of WWII in Europe to prevent countries from turning to communism; give countries money to help rebuild economy and support democracy
Korean War communist North Korea invaded democratic South Korea; China supported N. Korea & US supported S. Korea; war ends with two nations created and neutral zone established on 38th paralell
G. I. Bill passed by Congress to protect and reward returning servicemen; low interest loans, grants for college, etc.
McCarthyism derogatory term for baseless accusations that was popularized by Senator Joseph McCarthy’s witch hunt against communism in the USA
National Interstate and Defense Highways Act 1956 ; create highways for strategic transportation of troops and supplies; forever changed population patterns and grows suburbia
Brown v. Board of Education “ the field of public education, the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” - integrates schools; overturns Plessy v. Ferguson
Harry S. Truman 33rd US President who assumed power after FDR died; democrat; made decision to drop atomic bombs; containment policy; Korean War; Marshall Plan; desegregated military
Dwight D. Eisenhower 34th US President; republican; domino theory; enforced Brown v. Board decision; Interstate Highway Act; massive retaliation theory
Sputnik first man-made earth satellite launched by Soviet Union; surprised the US & led to more math & science education
National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) government organization promotion space research and travel; made in US after Sputnik launched
Massive Retaliation Eisenhower's plan that the United States would answer any military attack with all out military and atomic capacity
Domino Theory the idea that if one nation falls to communism, its closest neighbors will also fall under communist control; promoted by Eisenhower; led to intervention in Vietnam
Created by: edaughtrey
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