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Fertile Crescent

Lessons 3 & 4

Assyria Kingdom north of Sumer Powerful armies conquered much of Mesopotamia in 1100s BCE
Growth of Assyria began as a city-state named after main god (polytheistic)
Culture of Assyria similarities to Mesopotamia: cuneiform and expanding borders specialized labor in cities and dairy and barley farmers
Nineveh second largest city in Assyria North of Ashur
Babylon strong city-state in southern Mesopotamia began to reunite territories around it
Hammurabi King of Babylon built dams across Euphrates to control water flow. could cause draughts or floods forcing city-states to obey him
Babylonia Empire created by Hammurabi- 1750s BCE controlled all of Mesopotamia including Assyria Traded copper, silver, wine and other goods with people in modern day Turkey Grew wealthy from trade
Laws of Hammurabi Ruled similarly to Sumerian kings- built and maintained canals and served as judge. Established a written code of law Discovered by archaeologists carved on a six foot pillar contained 200 laws
Code of law written collection of laws apply to the citizens ruled by a government Copies were distributed across empire. Provides information about culture including slavery
Time of war after Hammurabi's weather, Babylonia began to break apart. Ashur and Nineveh were strongest and first to break away. Many wars between Babylonia and Assyria
Assyrian military innovation First use of battering rams, towers on wheels, and fast horse drawn chariots. Innovation made Assyrian army superior.
Assyrian city life Made slaves out of prisoners of war working on farms or building projects. Slaves could learn skills and become citizens. Men were hunters, soldiers, government leaders. Women had no rights- cared for families
Similarities in culture Assyria RESPECTIED HERITAGE OF BABYLONIA Collected vast amounts of Babylonian and Sumerian written records for libraries.
Nineveh Location on river helped for trade and provided water Built and aqueduct to bring water.
Aqueduct Raised waterway which brings water from afar
Destruction of Nineveh Babylon revolted against Assyria Response was the destruction of Babylon's temples and a flooding of the city Babylon responded by destroying Nineveh Assyrian power was over.
Abraham Lived in Ur with his wife Sarah Made a covenant with God
covenant special agreement
Abraham's Covenant with God He promised to worship one God and in exchange for the promise, he was given Canaan (modern day Israel) Believed to be the beginning of Jewish history
Israelites Migrations to Egypt Time of terrible hunger in Canaan (1600 BC) people o fiscal migrated to Egypt, where there was food. At first they were welcomed in Egypt, but when a new ruler took over they were enslaved.
Moses Born to Israelite parents in Egypt, adopted by a Pharaoh's daughter. Believed to be a Prophet. Saw Egyptian man beating Israelite slave. Moses killed the man then escaped/hid in the desert for many years. God said go back to Egypt and free his people
prophet one who speaks for God
Moses frees Israelite slaves Moses returned to Egypt, asked Pharaoh to free slaves, but he refused. Moses led the Israelites slaves out of Egypt
Torah Hebrew holy book. Believed to be given from God to Moses on the top of Mr. Sinai. Torah= to teach
monotheism Belief in one god. This set the Jewish people apart from the polytheistic worshippers of the Fertile Crescent.
Ten Commandments Basic Laws of the Torah
Kingdom of Israel After 40 years, the Israelites crossed the Jordan River, but Moses died on the trip
King David First ruler of the nation of Israel. Made the capital at Jerusalem.
Solomon Built a great temple in Jerusalem. (Weeping Wall) It was during Solomon s time that priests and scribes begin to write the Torah.
Babylonian Exile After Solomon died, israel split into two kingdoms: Israel (northern kingdom- taken over by Assyrians in 721 BC) and Judah (souther kingdom taken over by Assyrians in 586 BC
diaspora Scattering of Jews after the Kingdoms of Israel fell
Created by: ThomasM
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