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Lessons 3 & 4
|Kingdom north of Sumer Powerful armies conquered much of Mesopotamia in 1100s BCE
|Growth of Assyria
|began as a city-state named after main god (polytheistic)
|Culture of Assyria
|similarities to Mesopotamia: cuneiform and expanding borders specialized labor in cities and dairy and barley farmers
|second largest city in Assyria North of Ashur
|strong city-state in southern Mesopotamia began to reunite territories around it
|King of Babylon built dams across Euphrates to control water flow. could cause draughts or floods forcing city-states to obey him
|Empire created by Hammurabi- 1750s BCE controlled all of Mesopotamia including Assyria Traded copper, silver, wine and other goods with people in modern day Turkey Grew wealthy from trade
|Laws of Hammurabi
|Ruled similarly to Sumerian kings- built and maintained canals and served as judge. Established a written code of law Discovered by archaeologists carved on a six foot pillar contained 200 laws
|Code of law
|written collection of laws apply to the citizens ruled by a government Copies were distributed across empire. Provides information about culture including slavery
|Time of war
|after Hammurabi's weather, Babylonia began to break apart. Ashur and Nineveh were strongest and first to break away. Many wars between Babylonia and Assyria
|Assyrian military innovation
|First use of battering rams, towers on wheels, and fast horse drawn chariots. Innovation made Assyrian army superior.
|Assyrian city life
|Made slaves out of prisoners of war working on farms or building projects. Slaves could learn skills and become citizens. Men were hunters, soldiers, government leaders. Women had no rights- cared for families
|Similarities in culture
|Assyria RESPECTIED HERITAGE OF BABYLONIA Collected vast amounts of Babylonian and Sumerian written records for libraries.
|Location on river helped for trade and provided water Built and aqueduct to bring water.
|Raised waterway which brings water from afar
|Destruction of Nineveh
|Babylon revolted against Assyria Response was the destruction of Babylon's temples and a flooding of the city Babylon responded by destroying Nineveh Assyrian power was over.
|Lived in Ur with his wife Sarah Made a covenant with God
|Abraham's Covenant with God
|He promised to worship one God and in exchange for the promise, he was given Canaan (modern day Israel) Believed to be the beginning of Jewish history
|Israelites Migrations to Egypt
|Time of terrible hunger in Canaan (1600 BC) people o fiscal migrated to Egypt, where there was food. At first they were welcomed in Egypt, but when a new ruler took over they were enslaved.
|Born to Israelite parents in Egypt, adopted by a Pharaoh's daughter. Believed to be a Prophet. Saw Egyptian man beating Israelite slave. Moses killed the man then escaped/hid in the desert for many years. God said go back to Egypt and free his people
|one who speaks for God
|Moses frees Israelite slaves
|Moses returned to Egypt, asked Pharaoh to free slaves, but he refused. Moses led the Israelites slaves out of Egypt
|Hebrew holy book. Believed to be given from God to Moses on the top of Mr. Sinai. Torah= to teach
|Belief in one god. This set the Jewish people apart from the polytheistic worshippers of the Fertile Crescent.
|Basic Laws of the Torah
|Kingdom of Israel
|After 40 years, the Israelites crossed the Jordan River, but Moses died on the trip
|First ruler of the nation of Israel. Made the capital at Jerusalem.
|Built a great temple in Jerusalem. (Weeping Wall) It was during Solomon s time that priests and scribes begin to write the Torah.
|After Solomon died, israel split into two kingdoms: Israel (northern kingdom- taken over by Assyrians in 721 BC) and Judah (souther kingdom taken over by Assyrians in 586 BC
|Scattering of Jews after the Kingdoms of Israel fell