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Unit 7

US History - Standards 17-19

overproduction Producing more goods than people could afford to buy
underconsumption the lack of purchasing goods when supply is high
buying on margin buying a product on credit with the intention of pay for it later in smaller payments.
Stock Market Crash of 1929 Black Tuesday; Stock market prices fell dramatically; wiping out many Americans’ life savings and putting companies out of business
Great Depression Occurred during the 1930s; high unemployment & poverty
Dust Bowl An extreme drought in the Great Plains, made worse by over-farming of land
Hoovervilles Temporary encampments where homeless families built homes out of cardboard & packing crates during the Great Depression
Franklin D. Roosevelt 1932 Landslide election against Hoover, New Deal Programs and the Court Packing Bill. elected 4 times.
New Deal First set of legislation meant to help Americans; passed during FDR's first term
Social Security Provided old age pensions, unemployment insurance, aid to people with disabilities
Second New Deal Second set of legislation meant to help more Americans; passed during FDR’s second term
Eleanor Roosevelt FDR’s wife, changed the role of first lady; advocate for social progress & women’s rights
Court-Packing Bill FDR’s plan to add an additional judge to the Supreme Court for every justice over the age of 70
World War II Allied powers (Britain, France, USSR, China) vs. Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) ; began in Europe in 1939, US joined in 1941
Lend-Lease Act US could lend military equipment and supplies to any nation the president said was vital to the defense of the United States. Over $50 Billion sent to Allies.
Pearl Harbor US navy base in Hawaii Japanese launched a surprise attack on Dec. 7, 1941; Over 2,400 Americans killed
Rationing Items such as sugar, meat, butter, canned vegetables, fruits, and gasoline required stamps to limit American consumption
Wartime Conversion privately owned companies produced materials to support war; Ford made planes and tanks
A. Phillip Randolph black civil rights leader; met with FDR to encourage legislation ending discrimination and to integrate military; started March on Washington movement
Intergration the act of merging of racial groups in government areas and in the military
Japanese Interment 110,000 Japanese-Americans were removed from California, Oregon, and Washington via executive order & forced into camps for the duration of the war; Japanese lost businesses, houses, farms, etc.
Korematsu vs the United States Fred Korematsu sued the Federal Gov't over Executive Order 9066, he lost. The Supreme Court ruled that Japanese Internment was legal in wartime.
Pacific Theater US fighting against Axis powers in Pacific (Japan) using Island Hopping strategy
Battle of Midway US destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and lost 1 - major morale boost for USA - American victory regarded as most important naval battle in Pacific
Island Hopping Allied strategy to preserve resources and work way towards main islands of Japan
European Theater US battles against Axis powers in Europe (Germany & Italy)
D-Day Allied victory that began advance to reclaim Europe - Operation Overlord -storm beach at Normandy, France - largest seaborne invasion in history
Battle of Berlin USSR troops overtook German capital and Hitler commits suicide
Manhattan Project code name for development of atomic bombs - successful test at Los Alamos New Mexico - leads to Cold War arms race with USSR after WWII
Albert Einstein German born physicist who fled to the US from Europe and informed the president Germany was developing atomic weapons; led to Manhattan project
Atomic Bomb first nuclear weapons developed by US during World War II; only nuclear weapons ever used in warfare when US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki to force Japan to surrender
Huey Long liberal critic of FDR; thought New Deal did not go far enough
Created by: sdevans
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