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U.S.HIST UNIT 2 2020

Mr. Stickler's U.S. History Unit 2 Test Flashcards 2020

QuestionAnswer
What does the term "Popular Sovereignty" mean/ refer to? This term means "rule by the people".
What does the term "Separation of Powers" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the idea that each branch of the federal government - judicial, executive, and legislative - has their own powers assigned to them by the U.S. Constitution.
What does the term "checks and balances" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the idea that each branch of government has the ability to limit the power of the other two.
What is one (1) example of the term "checks and balances"? One (1) example of this term is that the President can veto laws that are passed by Congress - but - Congress can override the President's veto with a 2/3 vote of both the House and Senate.
What does the term "cabinet" mean (where the U.S. government is concerned? This term means "a body of advisers to the president, composed of the heads of the executive departments of the government." (dictionary.com)
What are the "Bill of Rights"? This is the name that is given to the first 10 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
What does the term "enumerated powers" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "powers that are specifically listed in the Constitution".
What does the term "judicial review" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the power to decide whether laws are constitutional and to strike down those that are not".
Which Supreme Court case resulted in the adoption of the idea of "judicial review"? "Marbury vs. Madison" resulted in this.
What does the term "implied powers" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "powers that are not explicitly listed in the Constitution".
List the names of the first two (2) political parties in the United States. 1.) Federalists; 2.) Anti-Federalists
What is the difference between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists? Federalists - Were in favor of a strong national government & weak state governments; Anti-Federalists - Were in favor of strong state governments & a weak national government.
What was the "Louisiana Purchase"? This was when President Thomas Jefferson bought the land formerly known as the "Louisiana Territory" from the French for $11.25 million.
List two (2) things that the "Louisiana Purchase" resulted in. 1.) The size of the United States doubled; 2.) The Spanish became the only European country that possessed territory within the current boundaries of the United States.
What does the term "impressment" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the practice of British seizing American ships at sea and kidnapping sailors, forcing them to serve in the British Navy.
What does the term "Era of Good Feelings" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the period after the War of 1812 when Americans felt a strong sense of national pride (aka "nationalism"). They identified themselves as Americans more so than residents of the state they lived in.
What were "revenue tariffs"? These are taxes that provided income for the national government.
What were "protective tariffs"? These are taxes designed to protect American manufacturers by taxing imports to drive up their prices. That way, Americans will buy American made goods because they are cheaper.
Who sponsored the law to create the Second Bank of the United States? Representative John C. Calhoun from South Carolina sponsored this law.
Which two Representatives helped get the law that established the Second Bank of the United States passed? Representatives Henry Clay (Kentucky) and Daniel Webster (Massachusetts) helped pass this law.
List two (2) reasons why the Second Bank of the United States was established. 1.) To print and coin money that would be used as a national currency; 2.) To control state banks.
What was the Supreme Court's decision in the "McCulloch vs. Maryland" case? In this case, the Supreme Court stated that having a national bank was necessary so that the national government could exercise the powers it was given in the U.S. Constitution.
What was the name of the clause that the "McCulloch vs. Maryland" Supreme Court case established? This Supreme Court case established the "necessary and proper" clause.
What does the "necessary and proper" clause state? This clause states that state governments cannot interfere with any agency of the national government exercising its specific Constitutional powers within that state's borders.
What was the Supreme Court's decision in the "Martin vs. Hunter's Lessee" case? In this case, the Supreme Court established that they had the power to hear all appeals of state court decisions in cases that involved national statues and treaties.
What was the Supreme Court's decision in the "Gibbons vs. Ogden" case? In this case, the Supreme Court stated that states can only regulate business within their boundaries, but that business that crossed state lines should be regulated by the national government.
What was the "Monroe Doctrine"? This was the term given to President Monroe's statement that European countries were no longer allowed to colonize any lands in Latin America. These lands were closed to further colonization.
What does the term "Industrial Revolution" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the period - beginning in Great Britain in the mid-1700's - when large scale manufacturing using complex machines began. Work forces also began organizing themselves into labor unions during this period.
In the primary source that we read titled "Child Labor in the Canning Industry of Maryland", what did the author tell us about "dangerous conditions" that existed in these factories for children? 1.) Children were carrying boxes that were dangerously heavy for them; 2.) Dangerous machines with "unguarded belts, wheels, & cogs".
In the primary source that we read titled "Child Labor in the Canning Industry of Maryland", what did we learn about how work permits for children were handled? We learned that often, children were starting jobs before they got a work permit. Also, that many factories did not require children to have work permits at all.
In the primary source that we read titled "Child Labor in the Canning Industry of Maryland", what did we learn about the living conditions in the "shacks" provided by factory owners? We learned that these shacks had way too many families living in each one, that the conditions were "harmful in physical ways", and that children are unable to get enough sleep.
In the primary source that we read titled "Child Labor in the Canning Industry of Maryland", what does the author tell us about the amount of education that child laborers often got? The author states that these laborers often got "little to no" schooling at all.
In the primary source that we read titled "Child Labor in the Canning Industry of Maryland", list two (2) ways that factory owners took advantage of workers financially? 1.) They took money from their paychecks to pay doctor's fees without asking; 2.) Overseers worked with Sheriffs to jail workers for "vagrancy" as soon as they were fired, then charged them $25 for "costs" to get out.
How long does short term memory last? This lasts 1 minute or less.
What are the three (3) stages - or parts - of memory? These are 1.) Encoding; 2.) Storage; 3.) Retrieval.
How long does it take to distract you from full concentration while studying? 3 seconds or more.
What does it mean when the answer seems like it is "on the tip of your tongue" but you can't quite remember it? This occurs when there was an interruption during the "encoding" or "rehearsal" process which resulted in incomplete "storage".
Why is sleep important for learning? This is important because your brain gets rid of all unneeded information from the previous day to make way for the next day's learning.
How long is a sleep cycle? One (1) of these is 90 minutes long.
What were two (2) things that President Washington mentioned in his "Farewell Address to the People"? 1.) Warned that political parties and sectionalism were bad; 2.) He advised future presidents not to sign long term treaties with foreign countries.
What do 8 of the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution do/provide for? These provide protection of the people from government.
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts (1789)? These laws made it illegal to "say or print anything scandalous and malicious" against the U.S. government or any federal official.
What does the 12th Amendment do/provide for? This Amendment provides for the use of separate ballots for president and vice president.
Why did France want to sell its lands in North America to the United States? This country wanted to do this so that they would have enough money to finance their plans for conquering Europe.
What was the Treaty of Ghent? This was the treaty that ended the War of 1812.
Created by: sticklerpjpII
 

 



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