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U.S.HIST UNIT 2 2021

Mr. Stickler's U.S. History Unit 2 Test Flashcards 2021

QuestionAnswer
What does the term "Popular Sovereignty" mean/ refer to? This term means "rule by the people".
What does the term "Separation of Powers" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the idea that each branch of the federal government - judicial, executive, and legislative - has their own powers assigned to them by the U.S. Constitution.
What does the term "checks and balances" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the idea that each branch of government has the ability to limit the power of the other two.
What is one (1) example of the term "checks and balances"? One (1) example of this term is that the President can veto laws that are passed by Congress - but - Congress can override the President's veto with a 2/3 vote of both the House and Senate.
What does the term "cabinet" mean (where the U.S. government is concerned? This term means "a body of advisers to the president, composed of the heads of the executive departments of the government." (dictionary.com)
What are the "Bill of Rights"? This is the name that is given to the first 10 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
What does the term "enumerated powers" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "powers that are specifically listed in the Constitution".
What does the term "judicial review" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the power to decide whether laws are constitutional and to strike down those that are not".
Which Supreme Court case resulted in the adoption of the idea of "judicial review"? "Marbury vs. Madison" resulted in this.
What does the term "implied powers" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "powers that are not explicitly listed in the Constitution".
List the names of the first two (2) political parties in the United States. 1.) Federalists; 2.) Anti-Federalists
What is the difference between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists? Federalists - Were in favor of a strong national government & weak state governments; Anti-Federalists - Were in favor of strong state governments & a weak national government.
What was the "Louisiana Purchase"? This was when President Thomas Jefferson bought the land formerly known as the "Louisiana Territory" from the French for $11.25 million.
List two (2) things that the "Louisiana Purchase" resulted in. 1.) The size of the United States doubled; 2.) The Spanish became the only European country that possessed territory within the current boundaries of the United States.
What does the term "impressment" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the practice of British seizing American ships at sea and kidnapping sailors, forcing them to serve in the British Navy.
What does the term "Era of Good Feelings" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the period after the War of 1812 when Americans felt a strong sense of national pride (aka "nationalism"). They identified themselves as Americans more so than residents of the state they lived in.
What were "revenue tariffs"? These are taxes that provided income for the national government.
What were "protective tariffs"? These are taxes designed to protect American manufacturers by taxing imports to drive up their prices. That way, Americans will buy American made goods because they are cheaper.
Who sponsored the law to create the Second Bank of the United States? Representative John C. Calhoun from South Carolina sponsored this law.
Which two Representatives helped get the law that established the Second Bank of the United States passed? Representatives Henry Clay (Kentucky) and Daniel Webster (Massachusetts) helped pass this law.
List two (2) reasons why the Second Bank of the United States was established. 1.) To print and coin money that would be used as a national currency; 2.) To control state banks.
What was the Supreme Court's decision in the "McCulloch vs. Maryland" case? In this case, the Supreme Court stated that having a national bank was necessary so that the national government could exercise the powers it was given in the U.S. Constitution.
What was the name of the clause that the "McCulloch vs. Maryland" Supreme Court case established? This Supreme Court case established the "necessary and proper" clause.
What does the "necessary and proper" clause state? This clause states that state governments cannot interfere with any agency of the national government exercising its specific Constitutional powers within that state's borders.
What was the Supreme Court's decision in the "Martin vs. Hunter's Lessee" case? In this case, the Supreme Court established that they had the power to hear all appeals of state court decisions in cases that involved national statues and treaties.
What was the Supreme Court's decision in the "Gibbons vs. Ogden" case? In this case, the Supreme Court stated that states can only regulate business within their boundaries, but that business that crossed state lines should be regulated by the national government.
What was the "Monroe Doctrine"? This was the term given to President Monroe's statement that European countries were no longer allowed to colonize any lands in Latin America. These lands were closed to further colonization.
What does the term "Industrial Revolution" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the period - beginning in Great Britain in the mid-1700's - when large scale manufacturing using complex machines began. Work forces also began organizing themselves into labor unions during this period.
What were two (2) things that President Washington mentioned in his "Farewell Address to the People"? 1.) Warned that political parties and sectionalism were bad; 2.) He advised future presidents not to sign long term treaties with foreign countries.
What do 8 of the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution do/provide for? These provide protection of the people from government.
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts (1789)? These laws made it illegal to "say or print anything scandalous and malicious" against the U.S. government or any federal official.
What does the 12th Amendment do/provide for? This Amendment provides for the use of separate ballots for president and vice president.
Why did France want to sell its lands in North America to the United States? This country wanted to do this so that they would have enough money to finance their plans for conquering Europe.
What was the Treaty of Ghent? This was the treaty that ended the War of 1812.
What two (2) states were connected by the National Road that was built between 1811 - 1838. This connected Maryland and Illinois.
List two (2) things that we read about that were invented during the Industrial Revolution in the U.S. 1. Steamboats; 2. The telegraph; 3. The Water Frame; 4. The Cotton Gin.
What does the term "labor unions" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "groups of workers who press for better working conditions and member benefits".
What does the term "spoils system" mean/refer to? This term refers to "the practice of appointing people to government jobs based on party loyalty and support".
What does the term "secede" mean/ refer to? This term means "withdraw".
What did the newly formed "Whig" party wanted in the 1830's? This group wanted to expand the federal government, encourage industrial and commercial development, and create a centralized economy.
What did the Indian Removal Act (1830) do/provide for? This law provided for the forcible removal of Native American tribes to largely uninhabited regions west of the Mississippi River.
What does the term "temperance" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "moderation in the consumption of alcohol".
Who were Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton? They were two "of the most prominent women's suffrage advocates".
What was the Second Great Awakening? This was a series of religious revivals that began in the early 1800's. This began because church leaders sensed a growth of scientific knowledge & rationalism were challenging the doctrine of faith.
List two (2) things that "benevolent societies" did in the early 1800's. 1. Focused on spreading the word of God & trying to convert nonbelievers. 2. Tried to combat a number of social problems.
What did the term "Manifest Destiny" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the idea that the nation was meant to spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific".
What was the "Underground Railroad"? This was a well-organized network of abolitionists who helped enslaved persons escape to the North.
Who was Harriet Tubman? She was a runaway slave and a famous "conductor" on the Underground Railroad who helped 1,000's of enslaved persons escape to freedom.
What were the people called who crossed the Kansas border to vote illegally? These people were called "Border Ruffians". (SQR2; Evan & Scottie)
Who was John Brown? He was an abolitionist who led a raid on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia.
What was the Supreme Court's decision in the "Dred Scott vs. Sandford" case? The Supreme Court ruled that Scott could not sue for his freedom because African Americans were not citizens and did not have the right to bring lawsuits against anyone in a court of law.
What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854? This law created the state of Nebraska as a "free" state and Kansas would be created and would be a "slave" state.
What did the Fugitive Slave Act do/ provide for? This law stated that a slaveholder or "slave catcher" only had to point out alleged runaway slaves to have them taken into custody. The accused would then be brought to court and returned to the slaveowner.
What was one (1) provision listed in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? 1. The U.S. got 500,000 square miles of land. 2. Mexico accepted the Rio Grande River as the southern border of Texas. 3. The U.S. paid Mexico $15 million & took over $3.25 million in debts the Mexican government owed American citizens.
Created by: sticklerpjpII
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