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Ch. 4-7 Exam Review

Chapter 4-7 Exam Review

TermDefinition
Civil Liberties individual freedoms and legal protections guaranteed by Bill of Rights that cannot be denied by government
Due Process Clause Statement of rights that protects against arbitrary deprivations of life, liberty, or property; also interpreted to expand a variety of rights like right to privacy
Establishment Clause Clause ensuring freedom from religion by a basis for Supreme Court decisions limiting government support for and endorsement of certain religions
Symbolic Speech Expressing an idea/viewpoint ie. Wearing an armband or burning an object
Prior Restraint Effort to prevent publication of viewpoints. Government has generally forbidden it as violation of 1st amendment
Press Shield Law Statute enacted by legislature establishing a reporter’s privilege to protect the confidentiality of sources
Warrant Order from a judge authorizing a search or arrest
Right to Privacy A right created and expanded by Supreme Court decisions concerning access to contraceptives, abortion, private sexual behavior, and other matters, even though “privacy” does not appear in the Constitution
Roe v. Wade Decision that declared women have a right to choose to terminate a pregnancy in first 6 months after conception
Civil Rights
Political Equality
Jim Crow Laws Laws enacted by souther state legislators after civil war that mandated rigid racial segregation
Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision endorsing the legality of racial segregation laws by permitting “separate but equal” services and facilities for African American
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court decisions that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and declared that government-mandated racial segregation violated the Equal protection clause of 14th amendment
Affirmative Action Measure taken in hiring, recruitment, employment, and education to remedy past and present discriminations against members of specific groups
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Statute prohibited racial segregation in public places (hotels, theaters, employment) and programs receiving federal funding
Voting Rights Act of 1965 Statute attacked literacy tests and methods used to prevent African Americans from voting
Universal Suffrage Everyone has the right to vote
4 models of representation: Delegate model legislatures should adhere to the will of their constituents and support their aspirations regardless of his/her feelings
Trustee model Legislatures should consider the will of the people but act in ways they believe is best for interests of nation
Politico model Legislatures follow their own judgement until the public becomes vocal about a matter, then follow the dictates of the constituents
Conscience model Legislatures should follow the will of the people until they truly believe its best for the nation to act differently
Pocket Veto President doesn’t sign a bill that has been passed by both houses by not signing it; within 10 days the bill is killed when congress has adjourned
Bicameral Legislature Legislature with 2 houses: Senate and House of Reps
Elastic/Necessary and Proper Clause Constitution grants congress power to pass all laws “necessary and proper” fro carrying out expressed powers to enhance power of national government
Gerrymandering Drawing legislative boundaries to gain political advantage; might become more common with partisanship
Baker v. Carr subcommittees “One person, one vote”
Filibuster A person keeps talking to delay votes unless 3/5ths of chamber (60 senators) votes to end discussion
Prerogative Power John Locke’s idea that it was necessary to give executives special power to do “several things of their own free choice for the public good” for the president, especially during war president may use this power
Whig Model Presidents were limited to powers expressly granted in the constitution; a theory of restained presidential powers
Inner Cabinet Usually most important advisors to president, the secretaries of the departments of state, defense, treasury, and justice
Veto President’s disapproval of a bill; may be overturned by 2/3 vote in both houses of congress
War Powers Resolution Measure passed by congress in1973 to limit presidential deployment of troops unless congress congress grants approval for a longer period
Created by: moo_30