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Viruses

Microbiology

QuestionAnswer
By inhalation parainfluenza; Rhino
By fomites rhino
by direct contact rhino; norovirus (person to person); HSV (inc sexual); HPV (inc sexual); adenovirus
4 serotypes parainfluenza
Croup parainfluenza (serotypes 1-3)
human resp tract parainfluenza; RSV (localized)
giant cells RSV; measles
upper/lower resp human metapneumovirus; influenzaviruses
seasonal incidence parainfluenza; RSV
bronchiolitis RSV (<2 y.o.)
100% kids >4 infected RSV
immunocompromised pts human metapneumovirus
exacerbates asthma human metapneumovirus; coronavirus
gives nonasthmatics asthmalike s/s coronavirus
cool replication temp coronavirus; rhinovirus
by aerosol/droplets coronavirus; norovirus; HSV; adenovirus (resp); parvovirus
exacerbates pulmonary dx coronavirus
rid in dev'd countries; prob in developing countries measles; mumps
one serotype measles; mumps
>100 serotypes (>40 infect humans) adenovirus
often asymptomatic mumps; HSV (asymptomatic shedding)
kids asymptomatic carriers (dx usu mild in kids) HAV; HBV
double stranded rotavirus; HPV
single stranded noroviruses
increased in fall & winter rotavirus
worldwide distn parainfluenza, enteroviruses, rotavirus
CNS complications mumps
most important cause of common cold rhinovirus
enveloped paramyxoviruses, influenza viruses, HSV, HBV; coronavirus
pleiomorphic virion influenza viruses
can lead to pneumonia influenza viruses
genetic reassortment influenza viruses
hemagglutin/neuraminidase influenza viruses
5 genera & >200 spp picornaviruses
resistant to detergent, acid, drying, extremes of temperature enteroviruses
strictly human pathogens enteroviruses
neonates at increased risk enteroviruses
varied tissue tropism enteroviruses
tissue tropism important factor adenovirus; hep viruses (liver tropism)
fecal/oral route enteroviruses; noroviruses; coronaviruses; adenoviruses; Hep A&E
increased in summer enteroviruses
in reovirus group rotavirus
capsid helps survive acidic environments rotavirus
50% hosp'd dehydratn/diarrhea cases in US rotavirus
>1 million peds deaths worldwide (0-2 yo highest risk) rotavirus
small & sim in size to picornavirus noroviruses
common cause of community/group outbreaks of gastroenteritis noroviruses
dx self limits in 48-72 hrs noroviruses
smallest of DNA viruses parvovirus
medium-sized virus coronavirus
have glycopro's = allow them to survive GI tract coronavirus
affects mostly infants/young kids coronavirus (but affects all ages)
SARS coronavirus
ubiquitous HSV
latent, persistent infections HSV; HHV; adenoviruses
vertical transmission HSV
roseola assoc w/HHV 6&7
Kaposi sarcoma assoc w/HHV 8
replicates in squamous epithelium of skin and mucous membranes HPV
capable of oncogenic transformation; dysplasia HPV
conjunctivitis adenoviruses
erythema infectiosum in kids parvovirus
migratory polyarthritis in adults parvovirus
aplastic crisis in pts w/chronic anemia parvovirus
clinical manifestations: cutaneous / mucosal / anogenital HPV
90% of anogenital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11
85% of cervical dysplasia caused by HPV types 16 & 18
flavivirus heps Hep C & G
nonchronic heps A&E
high risk: immigrants from areas with high endemicity; IVDUs; homosexual males HBV
parenteral/sexual transmission HBV
>300,000 new cases per year HBV
chronic dx (___% of infected pts) assoc w inc risk liver ca HBV (60-70%)
1 cause of hepatocellular ca HCV
responds to interferon HCV
daycare centers HAV
replicates only in HBV-infected cells HDV
superinfection possible; often leads to fulminant hepatitis HDV
hep sim to norwalk HEV
can be letha to PG women/fetus HEV
Created by: Abarnard
 

 



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