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Fertile Crescent

Lessons 1 & 2

Fertile Crescent land in western asia earliest civilization lush green area between and surroundeing the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Mesopotamia One of the first civilizations. The civilization between the Tigris and Euphrates. "Land between two rivers" another name for Fertile Crescent
silt loose soil carried by water rich in nutrients and minerals and good for farming
droughts long periods without rain- southern Mesopotamia had droughts
erosion wearing away of soil by wind or water trees planted by the river banks helped because their roots help the soil in place
irrigation a system of canals to bring water to crops and fields Mesopotamian farmers brought water from artificial lakes to irrigate their crops into, dry months of spring and summer
levees a system of walls built around the river to keep flood waters back flood water destroyed crops
Sumer town in southern Mesopotamia. Surrounded by a big wall
Cuneiform a system of writing created in Sumer developed in 3,500 BC Earliest writing system in the world Scratched wet clay tablet with a reed to write symbols about 500 symbols
Scribe An official writer- mostly boys- recored songs, stories, legends and laws
City- State self-governing city that also governs nearby villages Largest was Ur, Uruk and Eridu- all near the Euphrates
ziggurat A temple. tall, flattened pyramid made of mud-brick center of most Sumerian cities.
polytheism a belief in many gods and goddesses Ki- god of good harvest God Enlil- god of rain Goddess Ishtar- goddess of love and war God Enki- god of water
Endeduana Sumerian priestess and scribe Daughter of Sargon
Sargon famous king of Kish father of Enheduana created first Empire ruled for 56 years
empire group of lands and people ruled by one government
Gilgamesh strong hero who set out on a journey to try and discover how people could live forever
c. Circa or "around a time"
Time Line a diagram of events arranged in the order they happened.
century 100 years
A.D. "In the Year of the Lord" in Latin After the death of Jesus
C.E. Common era
B.C.E. Before the Common Era
Tigris One of the two rivers that flowed in the Fertile Crescent, allowing for agriculture to flourish
Euphrates Both rivers began in the Taurus Mtns. and flows down the plateaus and in to the Persian Gulf
successful farmers learned how to grow many different crops and control the flood waters and the river in times of drought
crops wheat and barley (most important) beans, onions, lettuce,cucumber, herbs. trees with date palm, all and pomegranate. trees planted along canal banks
Uruk one of many small cities in southern Mesopotamia
inventions in Sumer irrigation system, wheeled vehicle, sailboats, pottery wheel, ideas in science and math and WRITING- most important
school in Sumer only a few boys and almost no girls practiced cuneiform writing and math
decade 10 years
Created by: ThomasM
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