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Eicosanoids - UTSW

How are eicosanoids different from steroid hormones? act locally, created then quickly destroyed
What do eicosanoids mediate? inflammatory response, fever, pain, gastric integrity, blood clotting
What physiologic responses do eicosanoids control? vasodilation & constriction, platelet aggregation & inhibition, smooth muscle contraction & relaxation
What is the precursor for eicosanoids? arachidonic acid
Where is arachidonic acid stored? membrane phospholipids
What are the 3 types of eicosanoids? prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes
What is the precursor for arachidonic acid? linoleic acid (essential fatty acid)
What regulates amount of eicosanoids? phospholipase A2
What enzyme converts arachidonic acid to leukotrienes? lipoxygenases
What enzyme converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins & thromboxanes? Cox 1 & 2 (cyclooxygenases) followed by cell specific synthases
Leukotriene synthesis involves what key intermediate? 5-HPETE
Besides leukocytes, what cell is involved in leukotriene synthesis? platelets
What 2 signaling mechanisms do eicosanoids use? autocrine & paracrine
Which eicosanoid mediates inflammation, fever, plateletaggregation and disaggretation,induce labor, maintain stomach lining? prostaglandins
Which eicosanoid is produced by platelets, promoteaggregation (blood clotting) andvasoconstriction thromboxanes
Which eicosanoid is produced by mast cells, mediate allergic reactions; SlowReacting Substance of Anaphylaxis(SRS-A), 104X potent than histamineProduced in plasma - smooth musclecell contraction leukocytes
Which enzyme is blocked by cortisol/anit-inflammatories? Phopsholipase A2
Wich enzyme is blocked by NSAIDS? COX 1 & 2
Which enzyme is blocked by anti-asthmatics? lipoxygenases
Why is aspirin imperfect? It blocks cox 1 & 2, but cox 1 protects stomach lining via PGE2
What are the drawbacks to COX2 inhibition? Since COX2 (PGI2) inhibits platelet aggregation while COX 1 activates it (TGA2), Inhibiting COX 2 can lead to excess clotting
How does aspirin prevent heart attacks? By covalently modifying COX 1 & 2, aspirin leads to their degradation. Since platelets cannot create new cox 1 & 2, this = anticoagulation (however - not all platelets impacted, so some clotting still occurs)
Created by: UTSW1