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7559 Am. Government

Mrs. Stubbs answers to the Study Guide for the final exam

QuestionAnswer
House of Burgesses The​ ​legislative​ ​assembly​ ​established​ ​in​ ​the​ ​1640's​ ​in​ ​Virginia,​ ​now​ ​known​ ​as​ ​the General​ ​Assembly​ ​of​ ​Virginia
​Declaration​ ​of​ ​Independence A​ ​description​ ​of​ ​the​ ​purpose​ ​of​ ​government. A​ ​list​ ​of​ ​grievances​ ​against​ ​the​ ​King​ ​of​ ​England A​ ​definition​ ​of​ ​peoples’​ ​natural​ ​rights. ​Stated​ ​that​ ​in​ ​a​ ​democracy,​ ​power​ ​comes​ ​from​ the people.
National​ Legislative​ ​Branch ​two-house​ ​(bicameral)​ ​legislature House​ ​of​ ​Representatives​ ​whose​ ​membership​ ​was​ ​based​ ​on​ ​the​ ​population​ ​of​ ​a state Senate​ ​whose​ ​membership​ ​was​ ​based​ ​on​ ​two​ ​Senators​ ​per​ ​state
Why did Federalist agree to add a Bill of Rights to the Constitution? Persuade​ ​the​ ​Anti-Federalists​ ​to​ ​accept​ ​the​ ​Constitution
U.S. Constitution v. Articles of Confederation One difference is that it created​ ​a​ ​national​ ​government​ ​having​ ​three​ ​branches
Differences between the Anti-Federalists and the Federalists Federalists​ ​and Anti-Federalist​ ​disagreed​ ​MOST​ ​strongly​ ​over​ ​the division​ ​of​ ​powers​ ​between​ ​the​ ​national​ ​and​ ​state​ ​governments.
A major reason why the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution Protect​ ​individual​ ​liberties​ ​from​ ​abuse​ ​by​ ​the​ ​federal​ ​government
“Father of the Constitution” James​ ​Madison
Checks and Balances stop​ ​other​ ​branches​ ​from​ ​becoming​ ​too​ ​powerful
First Amendment Freedom of Speech Freedom of the Press Freedom of Religion Right of the people peaceably to assemble Petition the government for a redress of grievances.
Where did the Anti-Federalists believe the power was given in the original draft of the Constitution? National_ _Government
Federalists beliefs on the Constitution The development of political factions would prevent any one branch from gaining too much power thus allowing a republic to survive. The checks and balances system was designed to prevent the three branches from acquiring preponderant power.
Last Question cont' A strong national government was necessary to facilitate interstate commerce and to manage foreign trade, national defense, and foreign relations.
Some main areas for which the Constitution provided developing​ ​a​ ​system​ ​of​ ​numerous​ ​checks​ ​and​ ​balances​ ​between​ ​three co-equal​ ​branches​ ​of​ ​government​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​avoid​ ​a​ ​too​ ​powerful​ ​central Government
Last question cont' establishing​ ​federal​ ​law​ ​as​ ​the​ ​Supreme​ ​Law​ ​of​ ​the​ ​land​ ​while​ ​giving​ ​states considerable​ ​power​ ​to​ ​govern​ ​themselves
Last question cont' placating​ ​the​ ​Southern​ ​states​ ​by​ ​counting​ ​slaves​ ​as​ ​3/5's​ ​of​ ​the​ ​population when​ ​determining​ ​representation​ ​in​ ​the​ ​House​ ​of​ ​Representatives
Election of 1800 ​The​ ​first​ ​instance​ ​of​ ​political​ ​power​ ​being​ ​transferred peacefully​ ​from​ ​one​ ​political​ ​party​ ​to​ ​another.
Veto A​ ​power​ ​granted​ ​to​ ​the​ ​President​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​prevent passage​ ​of​ ​legislation.
Judicial Review The​ ​Supreme​ ​Court​ ​can​ ​declare​ ​a​ ​law​ ​unconstitutional​ ​because​ ​of​ ​the​ ​principle​ ​of judicial review.
What court case established Judicial Review Case​ ​of​ ​Marbury​ ​v.​ ​Madison
Central idea of democracy The​ ​belief​ ​that​ ​government​ ​is​ ​derived​ ​from​ ​the people.
According to the Declaration of Independence, from where should the government derive their legitimacy? governments​ ​should​ ​derive​ ​their​ ​legitimacy​ ​from​ ​the​ ​consent​ ​of the​ ​governed.
One goal of the American Revolution liberty
Know what the 14th, 15th, 19th, and 21st amendments were all about. (2 questions) 14th-defining national citizenship and forbidding the states to restrict the basic rights of citizens or other persons. 15th-granted African American men the right to vote
Last question cont' 19th -​granted​ ​women​ ​the​ ​right​ ​to​ ​vote 21st- repealed 18th amendment on Prohibition
Political Machines ​A​ ​party​ ​organization​ ​that​ ​recruits​ ​its​ ​members​ ​by​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of incentives,​ ​including​ ​money,​ ​jobs,​ ​and​ ​favors?​ ​ ​It​ ​is​ ​characterized​ ​by​ ​a​ ​high​ ​degree​ ​of leadership​ ​control​ ​over​ ​member​ ​activity.
Reapportionment of the Constitution The​ ​Constitution​ ​requires​ ​reapportionment​ ​every​ 10​ ​years.
The concept in the opening words of the Preamble The​ ​opening​ ​words​ ​of​ ​the​ ​preamble​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Constitution​ ​expresses Popular Sovereignty.
Procedures for a president to be removed from office The​ ​house​ ​votes​ ​for​ ​impeachment​ ​and​ ​the​ ​senate​ ​conducts​ ​a​ ​trial and​ ​reaches​ ​a​ ​guilty​ ​verdict.
Pocketbook Vote The​ ​economy​ ​serves​ ​as​ ​a​ ​driving​ ​force​ ​for​ ​many​ ​in​ ​determining​ ​the​ ​outcome​ ​of certain​ ​election.​ ​
Last term cont' ​In​ ​good​ ​economic​ ​times,​ ​the​ ​party​ ​holding​ ​the​ ​White​ ​House​ ​normally does​ ​well;​ ​while​ ​in​ ​poor​ ​times,​ ​the​ ​opposition​ ​party​ ​normally​ ​does​ ​better.​
What are the following course cases about?: Marbury v. Madison Roe v. Wade Plessy v. Ferguson McCullouch v Maryland a. Plessy​ ​v.​ ​Ferguson- upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation laws for public facilities as long as the segregated facilities were equal in quality, a doctrine that came to be known as "separate but equal".
Last question cont' b. Marbury​ ​v.​ ​Madison- established judicial review c. Roe​ ​v.​ ​Wade -affirms the legality of a woman's right to have an abortion d. McCullouch​ ​v.​ ​Maryland-impose taxes on the bank
Cloture Motion Cuts​ ​off​ ​debate​ ​on​ ​a​ ​bill
Formal qualifications to run for President President- a "natural born Citizen" of the United States, at least thirty-five years of age and a "Resident within the United States" for fourteen years.
Formal qualifications to run for Congress Congress- # Senators must be at least 30 years of age (25 for Representatives), # citizens of the United States for at least nine years, #and residents of the states from which they are elected.
Due Process A​ ​state​ ​may​ ​not​ ​take​ ​a​ ​person's​ ​life,​ ​liberty,​ ​or​ ​property​
How many amendments are in the Constitution today? 27
What are the Bill of Rights? ​Within​ ​the​ ​Constitution​ ​of​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States,​ ​where​ one ​might​ ​one​ ​find​ ​the​ ​guarantees​ ​of certain​ ​basic​ ​rights.
Double Jeopardy ​a​ ​person​ ​cannot​ ​be​ ​tried​ ​twice​ ​for​ ​the​ ​same​ ​crime
Refugees v. illegal aliens Refugees- ​flee​ ​to​ ​another​ ​country​ ​to​ ​escape​ ​persecution​ ​or Danger Illegal Aliens- a foreign national who is living without authorization in a country of which they are not a citizen.
Biggest entitlement program Social Security
Magna Carta Established​ ​a​ ​limited​ ​government
Progressive Tax v. Flat Tax Progressive Tax- ​takes​ ​a​ ​higher​ ​percentage​ ​of​ ​income​ ​from​ ​upper​ ​income​ ​groups​ ​than from​ ​lower​ ​income​ ​groups Flat tax- is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income Tax.
What do Article I, II, and III establish in the Constitution Article I- ​establishes​ ​the​ Legislative​ ​branch​ ​of​ ​government Article II -​establishes​ ​the​ ​executive​ ​branch​ ​of​ ​government Article III - ​establishes​ ​the​ ​judicial ​branch​ ​of​ ​government
What did the framers of the Constitution intend to establish? a representative republic
Establishment Clause It​ ​prohibits​ ​Congress​ ​from​ ​establishing​ ​a​ ​state​ ​religion
Federalism the division of powers between the levels of government
Steps for an amendment to be adopted Step 1: Two-thirds of both houses of Congress pass a proposed constitutional amendment. This sends the proposed amendment to the states for ratification.
Steps cont' Step 2: Three-fourths of the states (38 states) ratify the proposed amendment, either by their legislatures or special ratifying conventions.
Articles of Confederation There​ ​was​ ​no​ ​Supreme​ ​Court Each​ ​state​ ​had​ ​one​ ​vote​ ​in​ ​Congress To​ ​add​ ​Amendments​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Articles​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Confederation,​ ​the​ ​13 states​ ​had​ ​to​ ​unanimously​ ​agree
Civic Duty Civic Duty- ​a​ ​person​ ​has​ ​an​ ​obligation​ ​to participate​ ​in​ ​governmental/civic​ ​affairs
Jury Duty Jury Duty- ​If​ ​you​ ​are​ ​registered​ ​to​ ​vote​ ​or​ ​have​ ​a​ ​driver's​ ​license,​ ​you​ ​may​ ​be​ ​called for jury duty to be questioned and possibly serve on a jury. This is one aspect of Civic Duty.
Closed Party Closed Primary-​ the primary​ where it ​requires​ ​that​ ​voters​ ​declare​ ​that​ ​they​ ​are​ ​a​ ​registered​ ​member of​ ​the​ ​party​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​vote​ ​in​ ​that​ ​primary.
Open Party Open Primary- An open primary allows any registered voter to cast her ballot in either party's primary.
Who is responsible for forming the boundaries of the US congressional districts? State​ ​Legislatures
Created by: Mrs. Stubbs