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US FINAL STUDY GUIDE

11th Grade US History Final Study Guide

Term/IdeaDefinition/Answer
1. Reasons why American Colonists settled where they did? Many of the people who settled in the New World came to escape religious persecution.
2. Foundations of American Democracy: Worth of the individual. Equality of all persons. Majority rule-minority rights.Individual freedom. Necessity of compromise.
3. Why did the Anti-Federalists oppose the ratification of the Constitution in 1787? The Anti-Federalists opposed the ratification of the 1787 U.S. Constitution because they feared that the new national government would be too powerful and thus threaten individual liberties, given the absence of a bill of rights
4. Thomas Paine and Common Sense: Common Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775–76 advocating independence from Great Britain to people in the Thirteen Colonies. ]
5. Declaration of Independence: The Declaration of Independence is defined as the formal statement written by Thomas Jefferson declaring the freedom of the thirteen American colonies from Great Britain.
6. Shay’s Rebellion: In 1787, poor farmers from western Massachusetts fighting against high taxes followed Daniel Shays in an attempt to seize the arms stockpiled at the Springfield Armory.
7. Louisiana Purchase: The purchase by the United States from France of the huge Louisiana Territory in 1803. President Thomas Jefferson ordered the purchase negotiations, fearing that the French, then led by Napoleon, wanted to establish an empire in North America.
8. Missouri Compromise of 1820: The Missouri Compromise passed Congress in 1820. It admitted Missouri to the Union as a slave state and barred slavery from the Louisiana Territory north of the 36°30' parallel.
9. Compromise of 1850: Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
10. Manifest Destiny: the 19th-century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.
11. Economic differences of the North and South prior to the Civil War? The economy of the North was based on manufacturing. The economy of the South was based on agriculture.
12. Lincoln’s goal in the Civil War: Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation freed about millions of slaves in Confederate-held territory, and established emancipation as a Union war goal.
13. Seneca Falls Convention: Under the leadership of Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a convention for the rights of women was held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. It was attended by between 200 and 300 people, both women and men.
14. Reconstruction Period: The period after the Civil War, 1865 - 1877, was called the Reconstruction period. Abraham Lincoln started planning for the reconstruction of the South during the Civil War as Union soldiers occupied huge areas of the South.
15. President Andrew Johnson and the Reconstruction Period: In 1865 President Andrew Johnson implemented a plan of Reconstruction that gave the white South a free hand in regulating the transition from slavery to freedom and offered no role to blacks in the politics of the South.
16. Result of the Civil War: The final outcome impact of the Civil War was that the North had won the war and slavery was abolished. The impact of the Civil War was the evolution of new war weapons and changes in the economy and the way people lived.
17. Black Codes: The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states after the American Civil War with the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
18. Native Americans: a member of any of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
19. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882: The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
20. Indian Wars between 1860-1890: The land that American settlers were claiming as their own had for centuries belonged to the Native Americans.'The Indian Wars' were a series of battles between Native Americans and US forces between 1860 and 1890.
21. Homestead Act of 1862: The Homestead Act allowed any American, including freed slaves, to put in a claim for up to 160 free acres of federal land. The Homestead Act set in motion a program of public land grants to small farmers.
22. Transcontinental Railroad: he transcontinental railroad was built in the 1800s to connect Council Bluffs, Iowa, with the San Francisco Bay and revolutionize transport in the U.S. Origin of the Transcontinental Railroad.
23. Development of the Great Plains: he forming of the plains was a slow process of erosion from wind and rain. It slowly filled in a large area below the mountains that was once a body of water, and formed the gradual slope that is large section of the Plains.
24. Three-fifths Compromise: The Three-Fifths Compromise outlined the process for states to count slaves as part of the population in order to determine representation and taxation for the federal government.
25. Reconstruction goals after the Civil War: The goal of Reconstruction was to restore the union and compromise with the Southern states that ceded before and during the war.
26. Economic impact of the Civil War: The Civil War greatly improved the economy of the North but harmed the economy of the South. It freed the slaves, thus removing the bulk of the Southern work force and forcing the South to readjust its economy.
27. Tenements: A run-down and often overcrowded apartment house, especially in a poor section of a large city. any species of permanent property, as lands, houses, rents, an office, or a franchise, that may be held of another.
28. Women's’ Suffrage Movement: The women's suffrage movement (aka woman suffrage) was the struggle for the right of women to vote and run for office and is part of the overall women's rights movement.
29. Battleship Maine: Maine was a second-class battleship commissioned in 1895 that was part of the new U.S. Navy fleet of steel ships. It exploded in Havana Harbor in 1898 and precipitated U.S. entry into the Spanish-American War.
30. Why was the North worried about Great Britain during the Civil War? the North’s initial lack of enthusiasm for emancipation made people doubt the Union's commitment to abolition. Charles Dickens believed the war was caused by northern protectionism.
31. Impressments: is the taking of men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice. Navies of several nations used forced recruitment by various means.
32. Trail of Tears: The route along which the United States government forced several tribes of Native Americans, including the Cherokees, Seminoles, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Creeks, to migrate to reservations west of the Mississippi River in the 1820s, 1830s, and 1840s.
33. Why did the South secede from the Union? Many southerners felt that with Lincoln's election, the South no longer had a voice in the national government
34. Emancipation Proclamation: The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
35. Why could Lincoln not carry out his plan of Reconstruction? Lincoln believed that the South had never legally seceded from the Union, his plan for Reconstruction was based on forgiveness. He issued the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction in 1863 to announce his intention to reunite the once-united states.
36. Mukrackers: Theodore 'Teddy' Roosevelt nicknamed these investigative journalists muckrakers. He borrowed the term from John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, in which a rake was used to dig up filth and muck
37. Who had great job opportunities during WWI when they did not before the war? During the progressive era (1890-1920) women played more active roles in the larger economic, cultural, and political transformation of America Society. As more and more states endorsed suffrage, so did their representatives in congress.
38. Treaty of Versailles: This was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
39. Why did US enter WWI? Germany's resumption of submarine attacks on passenger and merchant ships in 1917 became the primary motivation behind Wilson's decision to lead the United States into World War I.
40. League of Nations: The League of Nations was an international organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes.
41. Americans reaction to WWI: America had tried to keep out of World War One though she had traded with nations involved in the war – but unrestricted submarine warfare, was the primary issue that caused Woodrow Wilson to ask Congress to declare war on Germany on April 2nd.
42. Lusitania sinking: The Lusitania was a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. The unrestricted submarine warfare caused the U.S. to enter World War I against the Germans.
43. Zimmermann Telegram: The Zimmermann Telegram, was sent by German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann in 1917. He had sent it to his ambassador in Mexico and the goal was to get Mexico to become an ally of Germany. Mexico and Japan denied any involvement with Germany.
Created by: shaya78563