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Unit 5

US History - Standard 11-13

QuestionAnswer
Patent grant of property rights to an inventor for 20 years
Thomas Edison American inventor with over 1,000 patents; invented electric light bulb
Monopoly one company that eliminates competition and controls an entire product; can charge high prices; hurts common people
John D. Rockefeller American businesses man; created monopoly out of Standard Oil by using vertical and horizontal integration
Standard Oil Owned by John D. Rockefeller; monopoly on the oil refining business
Trust a group of businesses with the same product controlled by one person or group; similar to a monopoly
Andrew Carnegie Scottish immigrant turned American businessman; founder of U.S. Steel & philanthropist
Samuel Gompers Founder of the American Federation of Labor
Time zones 1883, new railroads needed an uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals
mass production the manufacture of large quantities of products, frequently using assembly line
collective bargaining to negotiation wages or other conditions of employment by a labor union
Labor union an organization of workers that relies on collective bargaining or striking to get companies to meet demands of better pay and working conditions
Ellis Island immigration processing center in New York Harbor (east coast); immigrants who came from Europe; only 2% rejected
Angel Island immigration processing center in California (west coast); immigrants from Asia; 18% rejected
Nativity people who viewed the fast-growing immigrant population as dangerous to the American political system
Irish immigrants typically Catholic & impoverished; discriminated against while competing for unskilled labor jobs in Northern cities
Chinese immigrants many hired to work on transcontinental railroad in 1860s; discriminated against & later U.S. passed law that banned immigration from China (Chinese Exclusion Act)
Sitting Bull Native American chief who led resistance against the U.S. government; was killed while being placed under arrest because he was suspected of being part of the Ghost Dance movement
Battle of Little Big Horn battle fought in the Great Sioux War that resulted in the death of most of the U.S. cavalry unit; victory for natives
Wounded Knee Massacre of approximately 300 Lakota Sioux; marked the end of Native American resistance to white settlers' expansion
Transcontinental Railroad railroad spanning from the east to the west coast of the U.S. mainly built using immigrant labor; created national markets and time zones
Jim Crow Laws Laws passed in Southern states to ensure segregation in public facilities (separate bathrooms, transportation, etc. for white and black
Progressivism people that strengthened American democracy through social & political reforms; against corruption in government and business
Muckraker Someone who exposed corruption and hidden problems in society; usually a journalist
Jacob Riis muckraker; New York photojournalist who published "How the Other Half Lives" which exposed unhealthy living conditions of immigrants in tenement houses
Jane Addams women's/civil rights activist & founder of Hull House - a place that provided services & education to immigrants
Plessy v Ferguson Supreme Court case which ruled that separate facilities were O.K., as long as "equal" facilities were provided for white & black; stemmed from Homer Plessy challenging Jim Crow laws by sitting in the white car on a train
initiative Reform which allowed voters to PROPOSE laws which they would like to see passed -sign my initiative-
referendum Reform which allows voters to PASS laws without the legislature
recall voters to remove politicians from office who are unsatisfactory before their term ends
voter empowerment Progressive political reforms that gave voters more power on the local, state, and national levels (initiative, referendum, recall, 17th amendment)
Upton Sinclair muckraker who wrote The Jungle to expose poor working conditions for immigrants
The Jungle book that exposed the unclean procedures used in the meatpacking industry; led to federal laws that established cleanliness standards (Pure Food & Drug Act)
Ida Tarbell muckraker who exposed Standard Oil's unfair business practices in "The History of the Standard Oil Company"
17th Amendment established popular election of U.S. senators
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded by a group of white people & W.E.B. DuBois to secure rights guaranteed by 13, 14, & 15 amendment; legally challenged Jim Crow laws, segregation
Conservation Movement A push to protect the environment, while also using nature (responsibly!) for recreation; one leader was President Teddy Roosevelt
Created by: sdevans