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Ethics: Unit 1

Study material for Wednesday's exam! (9/19)

Philosophy the study of questions that cannot be answered scientifically.
Ethics the systematic, reason-guided study of what makes us morally right or wrong and how we morally ought to act.
Applied Ethics subfield of ethics that focuses primarily on ethical dilemmas that arise in specific real-world contexts, such as business and medicine.
Critical Thinking the ability to think independently, evaluate information, and develop solutions to problems.
Fact something that is true, regardless of whether anyone believes it.
Opinion a belief that someone has.
Knowledge a belief that is both true and justified.
Perception justified in believing something because we've seen it to be true with our own eyes; it relies on our senses of the way things are.
Definition justified in believing something because it's true by the dictionary.
Testimony relying on other people telling you about what THEY perceived; it relies on other people testifying about what they've perceived, like a witness in a trial.
Authority learn things from people who know what they're talking about, even though they didn't perceive it themselves; it relies on someone who is an expert on a particular subject.
Reasoning the most important way to justify a belief when we can't rely on the other ways of justification.
Argument any chain of reasoning.
Premises statements with reason for thinking the conclusion is true.
Conclusion the claim the premises try to establish.
Subconclusion a statement within a multipart argument that acts as both a premise and a conclusion.
Normative Statement a claim about what is good or bad or about what we should do.
Descriptive Statement a claim about how the world is (or would be under certain conditions).
Principle of Charity "When clarifying an argument, reconstruct it so that the argument is as strong or reasonable as possible."
Ethical Relativism thesis that ethical truths are dependent on others' belief and feelings; they are relative to individual or cultural commitments.
Cultural Relativism the view that whether acts are morally right or wrong depends upon guiding ideals of the society in which they are performed.
Ethical Objectivism thesis that ethical truths are independent of others' beliefs about them.
Consequenialism ethical doctrine stating that the morality of actions should be assessed exclusively by their (probable) consequences.
Utilitarianism a theory asserting that the morally right action is the one that produces the most favorable balance of good over evil, everyone considered.
Deontology ethical doctrine that claims the morality of actions should be assessed by how they conform to a set of moral rules.
Virtue Ethics ethical doctrine that grounds moral obligations in what a virtuous person would do.
Golden Mean a balance between two behavioral extremes.
Informal Fallacy a common error in reasoning.
Ad Hominem (Against the Person) attacking a person's character rather than attacking the argument itself.
Slippery Slope arguing that some event will inevitably lead to a series of events in a bad outcome without providing good reasons to believe that these events will really happen.
Appeal to Authority citing an authority figure who (1) is not an expert on the subject, or (2) is clearly not impartial on the matter under discussion.
"Red Herring" diverting attention from the topic of the argument and onto something else.
Appeal to Ignorance claiming something is true just because it cannot be proven.
Appeal to Popularity claiming something is true just because lots of people believe it's true.
Equivocation failing to keep the meaning of words consistent in one's line of reasoning.
POST HOC Fallacy illegitimately arguing that because one event happened after another event, the earlier event caused the later event. From the Latin phrase meaning "after this, therefore because of this."
Hasty Generalization making a claim about a large group on the basis of only a small unrepresentative sample.
Straw Man arguing against a distorted, weaker version of someone's argument rather than the strongest version of their argument.
Created by: TayRo18
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