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Unit One

TermDefinition
Christopher Columbus An Italian explorer responsible for the European discovery of America in 1492. (Spain)
Colonization The establishment of outlying settlements by a parent country
Columbian Exchange The transfer --- beginning with Columbus's first voyage --- of plants, animals, and diseases between the Western Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere
Hernando Cortes Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the Fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castle in the early 16th Century
Conquistadors One of the Spaniards who traveled to the Americas as an explorer and conqueror in the 16th century
Roanoke Island First English settlement in North America (August 1585) ; the Lost Colony
Sir Walter Raleigh Led the effort to establish the colony of Roanoke
Joint-Stock Company Businesses in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose
Virginia Company A joint stock company that was approved by King James I to create new settlements in the colony of Virginia.
Jamestown The first permanent English settlement in North America, founded in 1607 in Virginia.
John Smith An English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia.
Pocahontas Married John Rolfe in 1614.
"Starving Time" A period of starvation during the winter of 1609–1610.
John Rolfe He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia.
Headright System The Virginia Company's policy of granting 50 acres of land to each settler and to each family member who accompanied him
House of Burgesses First elected assembly in America
Chief Opechancanough ("He whose Soul is White") A tribal chief within the Powhatan Confederacy (now Virginia), and its paramount chief from sometime after 1618 until his death in 1646.
William Berkeley A colonial governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors of the Colony of Carolina.
Bacon's Rebellion An armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
Puritans Members of a group that wanted to eliminate all traces of Roman Catholic ritual and traditions in the Church of England
Separatsts Members of one of the Puritan groups that, denying the possibility of reform within the Church of England, established their own independent congregation
Plymouth Colony The second permanent English colony in North America.
Massachusetts Bay Colony During September 1630, Winthrop and the other colonists aboard the Arbella established the colony.
John Winthrop A puritan political leader of the seventeenth century, born in England.
Roger Williams A puritan religious leader of the seventeenth century.
Anne Hutchinson Was a Puritan spiritual advisor, mother of 15, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the inFant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.
New Netherland A dutch colony in North America comprising the area along the Hudson River and the lower Delaware River.
Quakers Members of the Society of Friends, a religious group persecuted for its beliefs in 17th-century England
William Penn Quaker and founder of the province of Pennsylvania
James Oglethorpe British soldier, Member of Parliament, and philanthropist, as well as the founder of the colony of Georgia.
Plantations large farms on which the labor of slaves or other workers is used to grow a single crop, such as sugar cane or cotton
Cash crop A crop grown by a farmer for sale rather than for personal use
Indentured servants People who are contracted to work for another for a limited period, often in return for travel expenses, shelter, and sustenance
Slaves People who became the property of others
Triangular Trade The transatlantic system of trade in which goods and people, include slaves, were exchanged between Africa, England, Europe, he West Indies, and the colonies in North America
Middle Passage The voyage that brought enslaved Africans to the West Indies and later to North America
Stono Rebellion A 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws.
Merchantilism An economic system in which nations seek to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by establishing a favorable balance of trade
Navigation Acts A series of laws enacted by Parliament, beginning in 1651, to tighten England's control of trade in its American colonies
Dominion of New England In America was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England and the Mid-Atlantic colonies.
Glorious Revolution The transfer of the British monarchy from James II to William and Mary in 1688-1689
Salutary Neglect An English policy of relaxing the enforcement of regulations in its colonies in return for the colonies' continued economic loyalty
Great Awakening A revival of religious feeling in the American colonies during the 1730s and 1750s
John Edwards One member of the clergy who sought to revive the intensity and commitment of the original Puritan vision
Chief Metacom AKA King Philip was chief to the Wampanoag people and the second son of the sachem Massasoit. Became chief in 1662 after his brother Wamsutta (or King Alexander) died.
King Philip's War A conflict, in the years 1675-1676, between New England colonists and Native American groups allied under the Leadership of the Wampanoag chief Metacom
Created by: sarah23me1