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chapter 1

for test

mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure.
Elements are pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
compound is a substance made of two or more elements that have been chemically joined
crystals a solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a regular, repeating pattern
silicate minerals. a mineral that contains a combination of silicon and oxygen and that may also contain one or more metals
no silicate minerals a mineral that does not contain compounds of silicon and oxygen
luster he way in which a mineral reflects light
streak he color of a mineral in powdered form
Cleavage in geology, the tendency of a mineral to split along specific planes of weakness to form smooth, flat surfaces
Fracture the manner in which a mineral breaks along either curved or irregular surfaces
hardness a measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching
ore natural material whose concentration of economically valuable minerals is high enough for the material to be mined profitably
reclamation the process of returning land to its original condition after mining is completed
Silicate Minerals how to classify whether they combination of the elements silicon and oxygen- or not
Silicate minerals aluminum, iron, magnesium, and potassium, 90% of earth's crust
non-silicates carbon, oxygen, fluorine, and sulfur. defined as substances within the Earth that do not contain silicon
classes of non-silicate minerals oxides, sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, halides and phosphates.
impacts of mining erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water by chemicals from mining processes.
lessening impact of mining ensuring the area mined is returned close to its original state.
mineral properties-unknown minerals color, streak, hardness, cleavage, specific gravity, crystal form and other properties
halides and how formed a binary compound of a halogen with another element or group. halide minerals and salts are formed from halogens and metals
Evaporating salt water When a body of salt water dries up minerals such as gypsum and halite are left behind. Salt Water evaporates and leaves crystals behind
pegmatities As magma moves upward, it can form teardrop-shape. The mineral crystals come extremely large, sometimes growing to several meters across. Many gemstones, such as topaz and tourmaline
metamorphic rocks When changes in pressure, temperature, or chemical makeup alter a rock, metamorphism takes place Minerals that form in metamorphic rock include:<br />calcite, garnet, graphite, hematite, magnetite, mica, and talc<br /
Limestone Surface water and groundwater carry dissolved materials into lakes and seas, where they crystallized on the bottom Minerals that form in this environment include: calcite and dolomite, limestone,
hot water solutions Groundwater works its way downward and is heated by magma, and then reacts with minerals to form a hot liquid. Dissolved metals and other elements crystallize out of the hot fluid to form new minerals, such as:gold, copper, sulfur, pyrite, and galena
plutons As magma rises, sometimes stops moving before the surface and cools slowly, forming millions of mineral crystals. Eventually, the entire magma body solidifies, forming minerals as:mica, feldspar, magnetite, and quartz
Created by: Phoenix8181



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