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Glycerophospholipids

Glycerophospholipids - UTSW

QuestionAnswer
What is the major phospholipid and surfaceactivecomponent of surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)is the major phospholipid and surfaceactivecomponent of surfactant.
What is surfactant? Surfactant is a lipoprotein comprisedmainly of glycerophospholipids.
How does surfactant work? Detergent-like - reduces surface tensionby blocking interaction of H2O moleculesthat line the alveoli.
What is the structure of glycerophospholipids? Glycerophospholipids are Amphipathic Molecules that Contain a GlycerolBackbone, Two Long-chain Fatty Acids, a Phosphate and a Base/Alcohol
Hydroxyl residues at sn-1 and -2 positions are usually in ester linkage with long chain fatty acids of which type? sn-1 usually saturated, sn-2 usually polysaturated
What role do glycerophospholipids play in plasma lipoproteins (e.g. LDL)? Glycerophospholipids Serve as Amphipathic Surface Components of Plasma Lipoproteins
Which glycerophospholipid serves as a substrate for LCAT? Phosphatidylcholine
What lind of glycerophospholipidstether lipoprotein lipase, alkaline phosphatase and acetylcholineesterase to the plasma membrane? Inositol-containing glycerophospholipidstether lipoprotein lipase, alkaline phosphatase and acetylcholineesterase to the plasma membrane
Which glycerophospholipid has functions associated with hypersensitivity reactions? Platelet-activating factor, a highly potent molecule,has functions associated with hypersensitivity reactions.
How do glycerophospholipids serve as a reservoir for prostoglandins? Arachidonic and linoleic acidsare released from sn-2 position by phospholipases
Which secondary messengers do membrane polyphosphoinositidesserve as reservoir for? DAG and IP3
What is lecithin another name for? phosphatidylcholine
When does surfactant secretion begin? after 30 weeks gestation
How can surfactant be detected in amniotic fluid? The lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio
What does LCAT do? Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a polyunsaturated fatty acid from the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine on LDL to form cholesteryl ester
What is the precursor of all glycerophospholipids? Phosphatidic acid
Name two key regulatory enzymes in glycerophospholipidbiosynthesis and how are they regulated Phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAPase) & CTP:Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase – activated byincrease in fatty acyl-CoAs, which promote itstranslocation from cytoplasm to ER.
How are glycerophospholipids classified? According to the substituent on the phosphate group (e.g. choline)
What are glycerophospholipids with an alky or alkenyl in sn-1 position (as opposed to long-chain fatty acid in ester linkage) called? Plasmogens (reservoirs of arachidonic acid)
What 2 molecules is phosphatidic acid converted to? diacylglycerol & CDP-diacylglycerol
What 3 molecules can CDP-diacylglycerol be converted to? phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate, and cardiolipin
What can phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate be converted to? phosphatidylglycerol
What can phosphatidylglycerol be converted to? cardiolipin (diphosphatidylglycerol)
What enzyme converts phosphatidic acid to CDP-diacylglycerol? CTP:phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase
What can diacylglycerol be converted to? triacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine
What can phosphatidylethanolamine be converted to? phosphatidylserine (2-way street)
What are the precursors for phosphatidic acid? DHAP then converted to Glycerol-3-PO4
What activates PAPase & CTP:phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase? Translocation from cytoplasm to membrane (and subsequent activation) is stimulated by long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs
What happens if a glycerophospholipid (PIP2) is cleaved by phospholipase A2? Arachidonic acid - prostaglandins, leukotrienes and lipoxins
What happens if a glycerophospholipid (PIP2) is cleaved by phospholipase C? Inositol triphosphate (IP3) - release of calcium from theendoplasmic reticulum to the cytoplasm
What happens if a glycerophospholipid (PIP2) is cleaved by phospholipase D? Phosphatidic acid can - increase in intracellular calcium
Created by: UTSW1